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Recent advances have highlighted extensive phenotypic and functional similarities between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells. This raises the question of whether disease therapies can be developed that eliminate cancer stem cells without eliminating normal stem cells. Here we address this issue by conditionally deleting the Pten tumour suppressor gene(More)
The murine Pten prostate cancer model described in this study recapitulates the disease progression seen in humans: initiation of prostate cancer with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), followed by progression to invasive adenocarcinoma, and subsequent metastasis with defined kinetics. Furthermore, while Pten null prostate cancers regress after(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal growth factor regulating the production of circulating erythrocytes. We introduced null mutations into both Epo and the EPO receptor (EpoR) gene. Both heterozygotes appeared normal. Homozygous animals exhibited reduced primitive erythropoiesis and died around embryonic day 13, owing to failure of definitive fetal liver(More)
A broad spectrum of mutations in PTEN, encoding a lipid phosphatase that inactivates the P13-K/AKT pathway, is found associated with primary tumors. Some of these mutations occur outside the phosphatase domain, suggesting that additional activities of PTEN function in tumor suppression. We report a nuclear function for PTEN in controlling chromosomal(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor exerts anti-proliferative effects in response to various types of stress including DNA damage and abnormal proliferative signals. Tight regulation of p53 is essential for maintaining normal cell growth and this occurs primarily through posttranslational modifications of p53. Here, we describe Pirh2, a gene regulated by p53 that(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the long-term outcomes of surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising, emerging therapy for small HCC. Whether it is as effective as surgical resection (RES) for long-term outcomes is still indefinite. (More)
Suppressor Gene Ralf Lesche, Matthias Groszer, Jing Gao, Ying Wang, Albee Messing, Hong Sun, Xin Liu, and Hong Wu* Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California Department(More)
PTEN loss or PI3K/AKT signaling pathway activation correlates with human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. However, in preclinical murine models, deletion of Pten alone fails to mimic the significant metastatic burden that frequently accompanies the end stage of human disease. To identify additional pathway alterations that cooperate with PTEN(More)
In the liver, insulin controls both lipid and glucose metabolism through its cell surface receptor and intracellular mediators such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and serine-threonine kinase AKT. The insulin signaling pathway is further modulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase or lipid phosphatase. Here, we investigated the function of phosphatase and(More)
The live yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) offers a unique opportunity to study memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation in humans following an acute viral infection. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response using overlapping peptides spanning the entire viral genome. Our results showed that the YF-17D vaccine induces(More)