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Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria. A major concern with this approach is the frequent development of resistance to antibiotics. The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal growth factor regulating the production of circulating erythrocytes. We introduced null mutations into both Epo and the EPO receptor (EpoR) gene. Both heterozygotes appeared normal. Homozygous animals exhibited reduced primitive erythropoiesis and died around embryonic day 13, owing to failure of definitive fetal liver(More)
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibilities between the organellar and nuclear genomes and prevents self pollination, enabling hybrid crop breeding to increase yields. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA) has been exploited in the majority of 'three-line' hybrid rice production since the 1970s, but the molecular basis of this trait(More)
Recent advances have highlighted extensive phenotypic and functional similarities between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells. This raises the question of whether disease therapies can be developed that eliminate cancer stem cells without eliminating normal stem cells. Here we address this issue by conditionally deleting the Pten tumour suppressor gene(More)
The murine Pten prostate cancer model described in this study recapitulates the disease progression seen in humans: initiation of prostate cancer with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), followed by progression to invasive adenocarcinoma, and subsequent metastasis with defined kinetics. Furthermore, while Pten null prostate cancers regress after(More)
A broad spectrum of mutations in PTEN, encoding a lipid phosphatase that inactivates the P13-K/AKT pathway, is found associated with primary tumors. Some of these mutations occur outside the phosphatase domain, suggesting that additional activities of PTEN function in tumor suppression. We report a nuclear function for PTEN in controlling chromosomal(More)
Janus kinases (Jaks) play an important role in signal transduction via cytokine and growth factor receptors. A targeted inactivation of Jak2 was performed. Jak2-/- embryos are anemic and die around day 12.5 postcoitum. Primitive erythrocytes are found, but definitive erythropoiesis is absent. Compared to erythropoietin receptor-deficient mice, the phenotype(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor exerts anti-proliferative effects in response to various types of stress including DNA damage and abnormal proliferative signals. Tight regulation of p53 is essential for maintaining normal cell growth and this occurs primarily through posttranslational modifications of p53. Here, we describe Pirh2, a gene regulated by p53 that(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the long-term outcomes of surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising, emerging therapy for small HCC. Whether it is as effective as surgical resection (RES) for long-term outcomes is still indefinite. (More)
mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and the Rictor regulatory protein and phosphorylates Akt. Whether this function of mTORC2 is critical for cancer progression is unknown. Here, we show that transformed human prostate epithelial cells lacking PTEN require mTORC2 to form tumors when injected into nude mice.(More)