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In neurons, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is thought to mediate the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane when presynaptic Ca2+ levels rise. However, in vitro reconstitution experiments have failed to recapitulate key characteristics of Ca2+-triggered membrane fusion. Using an in vitro single-vesicle fusion assay, we found that membrane-anchored(More)
Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) has become a standard technique, but its protein-band output provides only static, qualitative information about protein-protein interactions. Here we demonstrate a real-time single-molecule co-IP technique that generates real-time videos of individual protein-protein interactions as they occur in unpurified cell extracts. By(More)
Candida antarctica (sp. SY16) required avegetable oil as the carbon source to produce a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL-SY16). Biosurfactant production was 31 g l−1 after 7 days in a batch culture and was not growth associated. In a two-stage culture, glycerol and oleic acid were used as an initial and a feeding carbon source, respectively, and(More)
Coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. It currently involves electrophoresis and western blotting, which are not optimized for detecting weak and transient interactions. In this protocol we describe an advanced version of co-IP analysis that uses real-time, single-molecule fluorescence imaging as(More)
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