Learn More
In humans, low peak bone mass is a significant risk factor for osteoporosis. We report that LRP5, encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, affects bone mass accrual during growth. Mutations in LRP5 cause the autosomal recessive disorder osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG). We find that OPPG carriers have reduced bone mass when(More)
How kinetochore proteins form a dynamic interface with microtubules is largely unknown. In budding yeast, the 10-protein Dam1 complex is an Aurora kinase target that plays essential roles maintaining the integrity of the mitotic spindle and regulating interactions with the kinetochore. Here, we investigated the biochemical properties of purified Dam1(More)
Chromosomes interact through their kinetochores with microtubule plus ends and they are segregated to the spindle poles as the kinetochore microtubules shorten during anaphase A of mitosis. The molecular natures and identities of coupling proteins that allow microtubule depolymerization to pull chromosomes to poles during anaphase have long remained(More)
Targeted gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) requires loading of a short guide RNA (small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA)) onto an Argonaute protein to form the functional center of an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In humans, Argonaute2 (AGO2) assembles with the guide RNA-generating enzyme Dicer and the RNA-binding protein TRBP to(More)
The Dam1 kinetochore complex is essential for chromosome segregation in budding yeast. This ten-protein complex self-assembles around microtubules, forming ring-like structures that move with depolymerizing microtubule ends, a mechanism with implications for cellular function. Here we used EM-based single-particle and helical analyses to define the(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is a common public health problem in the US. It is related to the high risk of rickets, osteoporosis and other diseases. Currently, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is the best indicator of vitamin D status, and determination of its deficiency or sufficiency. This level has high heritability (28–80%). However, genes(More)
Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA overflow into the synaptic cleft. Facilitated exchange diffusion is the classical model used to describe AMPH-induced DA efflux. This model hypothesizes that AMPH-induced DA efflux is mediated by DAT and results from the transport of AMPH into the(More)
Src family protein-tyrosine kinases, which play an important role in signal integration, have been implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple lineages, including breast cancer. We demonstrate, herein, that Src kinases regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade via altering the function of the PTEN tumor suppressor. Overexpression of(More)
Drought represents a major constraint on maize production worldwide. Understanding the genetic basis for natural variation in drought tolerance of maize may facilitate efforts to improve this trait in cultivated germplasm. Here, using a genome-wide association study, we show that a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) inserted in the(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), together with an operon of CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, form an RNA-based prokaryotic immune system against exogenous genetic elements. Cas5 family proteins are found in several type I CRISPR-Cas systems. Here, we report the molecular function of subtype I-C/Dvulg Cas5d from Bacillus(More)