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Monkeys serve as important model species for studying human diseases and developing therapeutic strategies, yet the application of monkeys in biomedical researches has been significantly hindered by the difficulties in producing animals genetically modified at the desired target sites. Here, we first applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system, a versatile tool for(More)
Developing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are highly vulnerable to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, both of which are important in the pathogenesis of many brain disorders. OL excitotoxicity is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate type on these cells. Here we report that(More)
Oxidative mechanisms of injury are important in many neurological disorders, including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Cerebral palsy after preterm birth is hypothesized to be caused by hypoxic-ischemic injury of developing oligodendrocytes (OLs). Here we examined the developmental sensitivity of OLs to exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with stage-specific(More)
Oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in developing white matter has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periventricular leukomalacia, the lesion underlying most cases of cerebral palsy in premature infants. In this study, we investigated the pathways of OL death induced by intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion. We found that(More)
Mathematical modelling offers a variety of useful techniques to help in understanding the intrinsic behaviour of complex signal transduction networks. From the system engineering point of view, the dynamics of metabolic and signal transduction models can always be described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) following mass balance(More)
Cofilin promotes actin filament turnover by severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. Cofilin is inactivated by phosphorylation on Ser-3 by LIM-kinase1 (LIMK1) and is activated when protein phosphatase Slingshot-1L (SSH1L) dephosphorylates this residue. The authors have shown that Ca-induced cofilin dephosphorylation is mediated by calcineurin(More)
The synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) plays critical roles in the regulation of synaptic activity reflected in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The cellular events underlying this important process in learning and memory are still being revealed. Here we describe and characterize the AAA+(More)
In this paper, a minimum entropy control approach for closed-loop tracking error is studied for linear dynamic control systems subjected to stochastic disturbances. The basic idea is to construct a feedback control scheme with the guaranteed closed loop stability using the Youla parameterization that provides a set of free parameters embedded in the(More)