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Excessive inflammation and tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis cause morbidity and mortality in diverse human diseases including endotoxaemia, sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Highly conserved, endogenous mechanisms normally regulate the magnitude of innate immune responses and prevent excessive inflammation. The nervous(More)
Adult hypothalamic neurogenesis has recently been reported, but the cell of origin and the function of these newborn neurons are unknown. Using genetic fate mapping, we found that median eminence tanycytes generate newborn neurons. Blocking this neurogenesis altered the weight and metabolic activity of adult mice. These findings reveal a previously(More)
Physiological anti-inflammatory mechanisms can potentially be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here we report that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inhibits HMGB1 release from human macrophages by signaling through a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, is more efficient than acetylcholine and(More)
The hypothalamus is a central regulator of many behaviors that are essential for survival, such as temperature regulation, food intake and circadian rhythms. However, the molecular pathways that mediate hypothalamic development are largely unknown. To identify genes expressed in developing mouse hypothalamus, we performed microarray analysis at 12 different(More)
The "metabolic syndrome" (MetS) is a clustering of components that reflect overnutrition, sedentary lifestyles, and resultant excess adiposity. The MetS includes the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure and is associated with other comorbidities including the prothrombotic state, proinflammatory(More)
This paper describes the voice source localization algorithm used in the PictureTel automatic camera pointing system (LimeLight T M , Dynamic Speech Locating Technology). The system uses an array of 46cm wide and 30cm high, which contains 4 microphones, and is mounted on top of the monitor. The three dimensional position of a sound source is calculated from(More)
Despite significant advances in intensive care therapy and antibiotics, severe sepsis accounts for 9% of all deaths in the United States annually. The pathological sequelae of sepsis are characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, but experimental therapeutics that target specific early inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and(More)
Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) of Artemisia annua catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate into amorpha-4,11-diene, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin. The promoters of ADS contain two reverse-oriented TTGACC W-box cis-acting elements, which are the proposed binding sites of WRKY transcription(More)