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The definition of cervical spinal instability has been a subject of considerable debate and has not been clearly established. Stability of the motion segment is provided by ligaments, facet joints, and disc, which restrict range of movement. Moreover, permanent damage to one of the stabilizing structures alters the roles of the other two. Although many(More)
In this paper, an anatomically accurate three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of the human lumbar spine (L2-L3) was used to study the biomechanical effects of graded bilateral and unilateral facetectomies of L3 under anterior shear. The intact L2-L3 FE model was validated under compression, tension, and shear loading and the predicted responses(More)
A parametric study was conducted to evaluate axial stiffness of the interbody fusion, compressive stress, and bulging in the endplate due to changes in the spacer position with/without fusion bone using an anatomically accurate and validated L2-L3 finite-element model exercised under physiological axial compression. The results show that the spacer plays an(More)
OBJECTIVE Although a number of in vivo, in vitro, and finite element studies have attempted to delineate the natural biomechanics, injury mechanisms, and surgical techniques of the cervical spine, none has explored the influence of various preload magnitudes and orientations on the biomechanical responses. METHODS A nonlinear three-dimensional finite(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the locations and loci of instantaneous axes of rotation (IARs) of the T10-T11 motion segment in flexion and extension. An anatomically accurate three-dimensional model of thoracic T10-T11 functional spinal unit (FSU) was developed and validated against published experimental data under flexion, extension, lateral(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the intersegment stability, disc degeneration, and osteophytes formation on the multisegment cervical spine (C2-C7) after unilateral and bilateral facetectomy. A geometrically accurate non-linear three-dimensional model of the intact human cervical spine was created from the digitized coordinates of the dry(More)
STUDY DESIGN A finite element (FE) model of thoracic spine (T10-T11) was constructed and used to determine instantaneous axes of rotation (IARs). OBJECTIVES To characterize the locations and loci of IARs in three anatomic planes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The center of rotation is a part of a precise method of documenting the kinematics of a spinal(More)
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