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In situ analysis of biomarkers is highly desirable in molecular pathology because it allows the examination of biomarker status within the histopathological context of clinical specimens. Immunohistochemistry and DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) are widely used in clinical settings to assess protein and DNA biomarkers, respectively, but clinical use of in(More)
In order to understand the mechanisms involved in tooth development it is important to define the timing for tissue-specific gene expression. A consequence of ameloblast cell differentiation is the sequential expression of tissue-specific genes whose products form the enamel extracellular matrix. The ameloblast phenotype has been characterized as consisting(More)
Significant progress has been made in defining mechanisms governing myogenesis at the transcriptional levels, but the extracellular signal-transduction pathways involved in myogenesis are not as yet defined. The developing mouse tongue provides a model for the regulation of myogenesis during precise time periods in embryogenesis. The molecular cues that(More)
The 'gold standard' for oncogenic HPV detection is the demonstration of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in tumor tissue. However, detection of E6/E7 mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) requires RNA extraction which destroys the tumor tissue context critical for morphological correlation and has been(More)
Patient management based on HER2 status in breast carcinoma is an archetypical example of personalized medicine but remains hampered by equivocal testing and intratumoral heterogeneity. We developed a fully automated, quantitative, bright-field in situ hybridization technique (RNAscope), applied it to quantify single-cell HER2 mRNA levels in 132 invasive(More)
In situ hybridization (ISH) techniques have been important to the study of gene expression signatures in cells and tissues. The ability to detect multiple targets simultaneously is especially valuable, since it allows dissecting gene expression of distinct cell types with precise cellular and subcellular resolution within morphological context. Recently, we(More)
RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) can provide valuable morphological context for molecular markers on one hand and enable morphological analysis in molecular context on the other hand. It has become increasingly important, thanks to increasing interest in new biomarkers and noncoding RNAs in both research and clinical applications. We have developed an(More)
Myogenesis is determined by a set of myogenic differentiation factors that are, in turn, regulated by a number of peptide growth factors. During embryonic mouse tongue formation, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and their cognate receptor (EGFR) are co-expressed spatially and temporally with desmin, a(More)
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