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l-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) exists as both membrane-associated and soluble forms in the mammalian brain. Here, we propose that there is a functional and structural coupling between the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by membrane-associated GAD and its packaging into synaptic vesicles (SVs) by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This(More)
BACKGROUND Dystrophins and dystrobrevins are distantly related proteins with important but poorly understood roles in the function of metazoan muscular and neuronal tissues. Defects in them and their associated proteins cause a range of neuromuscular disorders. Members of this superfamily have been discovered in a relatively serendipitous way; we set out to(More)
Previously, it has been shown that taurine exerts its protective function against glutamate-induced neuronal excitotoxicity through its action in reducing glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular free calcium, [Ca2+]i. Here, we report the mechanism underlying the effect of taurine in reducing [Ca2+]i. We found that taurine inhibited glutamate-induced(More)
Identification and treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain among the most prominent challenges in vascular medicine. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of cardiovascular pathology and represent intriguing targets to limit AAA expansion. Here we show, by using two established murine models of AAA disease along with human aortic tissue and(More)
Dystrophin/dystrobrevin superfamily proteins play structural and signalling roles at the plasma membrane of many cell types. Defects in them or the associated multiprotein complex cause a range of neuromuscular disorders. Members of the dystrophin branch of the family form heterodimers with members of the dystrobrevin branch, mediated by their coiled-coil(More)
In GAD65-knockout mice, lack of GAD65 expression was confirmed. The expression level of vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was upregulated, and no change in the synaptic vesicles (SV)-associated GAD67 was found. GAD65(-/-) SV transported cytosolic GABA much more efficiently than that of the wild type, further supporting our model that there is a structural(More)
In this study, specific sequences within three genes (3D, VP4 and 2B) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome were determined to be effective RNAi targets. These sequences are highly conserved among different serotype viruses based on sequence analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing plasmids (p3D-NT19, p3D-NT56, pVP4-NT19, pVP4-NT65 and(More)
BACKGROUND The dystrophin glycoprotein complex is disrupted in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and many other neuromuscular diseases. The principal heterodimeric partner of dystrophin at the heart of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in the main clinically affected tissues (skeletal muscle, heart and brain) is its distant relative, alpha-dystrobrevin. The(More)
The rapid rise of type II diabetes mellitus and its accompanying vascular complications call for novel approaches in unravelling its pathophysiological mechanisms and designing new treatment modalities. Noncoding RNAs represent a class of previously unknown molecular modulators of this disease. The most important features of diabetes-induced vascular(More)