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The genomic architecture of protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters is remarkably similar to that of the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene clusters, and can potentially provide significant molecular diversity. Pcdh genes are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. These molecules are primary candidates for establishing specific neuronal(More)
The Amazon is one of the few continental regions where atmospheric aerosol particles and their effects on climate are not dominated by anthropogenic sources. During the wet season, the ambient conditions approach those of the pristine pre-industrial era. We show that the fine submicrometer particles accounting for most cloud condensation nuclei are(More)
DiGeorge syndrome is characterized by cardiovascular, thymus and parathyroid defects and craniofacial anomalies, and is usually caused by a heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 22q11.2 (del22q11) (ref. 1). A targeted, heterozygous deletion, named Df(16)1, encompassing around 1 megabase of the homologous region in mouse causes cardiovascular(More)
This paper is a compilation of notes on 142 fungal taxa, including five new families, 20 new genera, and 100 new species, representing a wide taxonomic and geographic range. The new families, Ascocylindricaceae, Caryosporaceae and Wicklowiaceae (Ascomycota) are introduced based on their distinct lineages and unique morphology. The new Dothideomycete genera(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen of mammals that relies on 2-hydroxyphenyloxazoline-containing siderophore molecules called mycobactins for the acquisition of iron in the restrictive environment of the mammalian macrophage. These compounds have been proposed to be biosynthesized through the action of a cluster of genes that include both(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU), with its associated hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and mental retardation, is a classic genetic disease and the first to have an identified chemical cause of impaired cognitive development. Treatment from birth with a low phenylalanine diet largely prevents the deviant cognitive phenotype by ameliorating HPA and is recognized as one of(More)
The crystal structures of Flavobacterium heparinium chondroitin AC lyase (chondroitinase AC; EC bound to dermatan sulfate hexasaccharide (DS(hexa)), tetrasaccharide (DS(tetra)), and hyaluronic acid tetrasaccharide (HA(tetra)) have been refined at 2.0, 2.0, and 2.1 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the Tyr234Phe mutant of AC lyase bound(More)
The ability of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to adoptively immunize mice against Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the mouse genital tract was studied. Adoptive transfer experiments were performed with splenic CD4+ or CD8+ T cells obtained from mice following resolution of a primary genital tract infection and after a secondary chlamydial challenge. The results(More)
The importance of antibody-mediated immunity in primary and secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections was examined by using a definitive model of B-cell deficiency, the microMT/microMT gene knockout mouse. Vaginally infected B-cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice developed a self-limiting primary infection that was indistinguishable from(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the anti-obesity effects of the pomegranate leaf extract (PLE) in a mouse model of high-fat diet induced obesity and hyperlipidemia. DESIGN For the anti-obesity experiment, male and female ICR mice were fed with a high-fat diet to induce obesity. When the weight of the high-fat diet group was 20% higher than the normal diet group,(More)