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[1] A unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model II 0 is applied to simulate an equilibrium CO 2-forced climate in the year 2100 to examine the effects of climate change on global distributions of tropospheric ozone and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, primary organic(More)
[1] Aircraft measurements of organic carbon (OC) aerosol by two independent methods over the NW Pacific during the ACE-Asia campaign reveal unexpectedly high concentrations in the free troposphere (FT). Concentrations average 4 mg sm À3 in the 2 – 6.5 km column with little vertical gradient. These values are 10 –100 times higher than computed with a global(More)
[1] Global simulations of sea salt and mineral dust aerosols are integrated into a previously developed unified general circulation model (GCM), the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM II 0 , that simulates coupled tropospheric ozone-NO x-hydrocarbon chemistry and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, primary organic carbon, and secondary(More)
[1] A unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model has been developed within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM). The model includes a detailed simulation of tropospheric ozone-NO x-hydrocarbon chemistry as well as aerosols and aerosol precursors. Predicted aerosol species include sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon,(More)
[1] Understanding the effects of global climate change on regional air quality is central in future air quality planning. We report here on the use of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) III to drive the GEOS-CHEM global atmospheric chemical transport model to simulate climatological present-day aerosol levels over(More)
[1] Global simulations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosols are performed for the present day and 2050 using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Changes in climate and emissions projected by the IPCC A1B scenario are imposed separately and together, with the primary focus of the work on future inorganic aerosol levels over the United States.(More)
We investigate how a recently suggested pathway for production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) affects the consistency of simulated organic aerosol (OA) mass in a global three-dimensional model of oxidant-aerosol chemistry (GEOS-Chem) versus surface measurements from the interagency monitoring of protected visual environments (IMPROVE) network.(More)
Root system growth and development is highly plastic and is influenced by the surrounding environment. Roots frequently grow in heterogeneous environments that include interactions from neighboring plants and physical impediments in the rhizosphere. To investigate how planting density and physical objects affect root system growth, we grew rice in a(More)
Malignant gliomas are common and aggressive brain tumours associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We showed in this report that substratum adherence and migration by human U87MG glioma cells in culture were significantly attenuated by the extracellular domains of Nogo-A (Nogo-66) and the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). U87MG cells(More)