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Predicting behavior of large-scale biochemical networks represents one of the greatest challenges of bioinformatics and computational biology. Computational tools for predicting fluxes in biochemical networks are applied in the fields of integrated and systems biology, bioinformatics, and genomics, and to aid in drug discovery and identification of(More)
Recent studies of several multigene clusters have shown that gene activation by a remote enhancer is associated with chromatin loop formation. It is not fully understood how a chromatin loop forms in a nucleus or how it is involved in gene regulation. In this article, we propose that the major feature that determines loop formation is the flexibility of(More)
Chemical reaction systems operating in nonequilibrium open-system states arise in a great number of contexts, including the study of living organisms, in which chemical reactions, in general, are far from equilibrium. Here we introduce a theorem that relates forward and reverse fluxes and free energy for any chemical process operating in a steady state.(More)
We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (1) In-transformed richness is linearly associated with a(More)
Semi-Markov processes have found increasing applications in modeling the kinet-ics of single enzyme molecules. Detailed balance is a widely accepted condition for Markov models of closed chemical systems and well known to be equivalent to the reversibility of a stationary Markov process. We show that for a semi-Markov process detailed balance is only a(More)
When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, DNA damages in the form of single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs), base damage or their combinations are frequent events. It is known that the complexity and severity of DNA damage depends on the quality of radiation, and the microscopic dose deposited in small segments of DNA, which is often(More)
The solution to nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation is constructed in terms of the minimal Markov semigroup generated by the equation. The semigroup is obtained by a purely functional analytical method via Hille-Yosida theorem. The existence of the positive invariant measure with density is established and a weak form of Foguel alternative proven. We show the(More)
In the single-particle tracking experiment, the internal motion of a single DNA or polymer molecule whose one end is attached to a microsphere (optical marker) and the other end is anchored to a substratum is studied (Finzi and Gelles, 1995). The stochastic Brownian dynamics of the sphere reflect the spontaneous fluctuations, thus the physical(More)
In this work we focus on how noise propagates in biochemical reaction networks and affects sensitivities of the system. We discover that the stochastic fluctuations can enhance sensitivities in one region of the value of control parameters by reducing sensitivities in another region. Based on this compensation principle, we designed a concentration detector(More)