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Follicular lymphoma (FL) and the GCB subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) derive from germinal center B cells. Targeted resequencing studies have revealed mutations in various genes encoding proteins in the NF-kappaB pathway that contribute to the activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL subtype, but thus far few GCB-specific mutations have been identified.(More)
Predicting behavior of large-scale biochemical networks represents one of the greatest challenges of bioinformatics and computational biology. Computational tools for predicting fluxes in biochemical networks are applied in the fields of integrated and systems biology, bioinformatics, and genomics, and to aid in drug discovery and identification of(More)
Similarities in the temperate floras of eastern Asia and North America have been appreciated for more than 200 yr, but the generality of the floristic relationships among eastern Asia (EAS), eastern North America (ENA), and western North America (WNA), postulated by Asa Gray about 150 yr ago, has not been tested until now. In this article, floristic(More)
The taxonomic richness of seed plants at different taxonomic levels was compared between temperate East Asia and North America at both continental and semi-continental scales. In each comparison, land area and latitude range were adjusted to a comparable level between the two continental regions. East Asia is significantly more diverse than North America.(More)
The development of a tumor vasculature or access to the host vasculature is a crucial step for the survival and metastasis of malignant tumors. Although therapeutic strategies attempting to inhibit this step during tumor development are being developed, the biological regulation of this process is still largely unknown. Using a transgenic mouse susceptible(More)
We introduce the basic concepts and develop a theory for nonequilibrium steady-state biochemical systems applicable to analyzing large-scale complex isothermal reaction networks. In terms of the stoichiometric matrix, we demonstrate both Kirchhoff's flux law sigma(l)J(l)=0 over a biochemical species, and potential law sigma(l) mu(l)=0 over a reaction loop.(More)
  • Hong Qian
  • 2007
Biochemical systems and processes in living cells generally operate far from equilibrium. This review presents an overview of a statistical thermodynamic treatment for such systems, with examples from several key components in cellular signal transduction. Open-system nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS) models are introduced. The models account(More)
Exotic species have begun to homogenize the global biota, yet few data are available to assess the extent of this process or factors that constrain its advance at global or continental scales. We evaluate homogenization of vascular plants across America north of Mexico by comparing similarity in the complete native and exotic floras between states and(More)
We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (1) In-transformed richness is linearly associated with a(More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disorder linked to contractions of the D4Z4 repeat array in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q. By comparing genome-wide gene expression data from muscle biopsies of patients with FSHD to those of 11 other neuromuscular disorders, paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1(More)