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This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza-tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a(More)
Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage(More)
We present a large-scale meta evaluation of eight evaluation measures for both single-document and multi-document summarizers. To this end we built a corpus consisting of (a) 100 Million automatic summaries using six summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual abstracts and extracts, and (c) 200(More)
The official evaluation of TREC-style Q&A systems is done manually, which is quite expensive and not scalable to web-based Q&A systems. An automatic evaluation technique is needed for dynamic Q&A systems. This paper presents a set of metrics that have been implemented in our web-based Q&A system, namely NSIR. It also shows the correlations between the(More)
The web is now becoming one of the largest information and knowledge repositories. Many large scale search engines (Google, Fast, Northern Light, etc.) have emerged to help users find information. In this paper, we study how we can effectively use these existing search engines to mine the Web and discover the "correct" answers to factual natural language(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of desiccating ocular surface stress on the expression of chemokines and their receptors by the corneal epithelium and conjunctiva of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. METHODS Experimental dry eye was created in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, monokine(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has been identified as an essential growth factor supporting stem cell self-renewal outside the nervous system and was previously shown to stimulate corneal epithelial proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the expression of NGF and its corresponding receptors in(More)