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This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza-tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a(More)
Somatotopic maps in the cortex and the thalamus of adult monkeys and humans reorganize in response to altered inputs. After loss of the sensory afferents from the forelimb in monkeys because of transection of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, therapeutic amputation of an arm or transection of the dorsal roots of the peripheral nerves, the deprived(More)
The organization of primary motor cortex (M1) of adult macaque monkeys was examined years after therapeutic amputation of part of a limb or digits. For each case, a large number of sites in M1 were electrically stimulated with a penetrating microelectrode, and the evoked movements and levels of current needed to evoke the movements were recorded. Results(More)
Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage(More)
In order to determine the relationship of superior colliculus inputs to thalamic neurons projecting to the middle temporal visual area (MT), injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase were placed in the superior colliculus of three owl monkeys, with injections of Fast Blue in the MT. The locations of labelled terminals and(More)
In the primary visual area of macaques and other monkeys, layer 4A is a mosaic of separate tissue compartments related to the parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. This mosaic resembles a honeycomb, with thin walls that receive direct P inputs and cores consisting of columns of dendrites and cell bodies ascending(More)
The official evaluation of TREC-style Q&A systems is done manually, which is quite expensive and not scalable to web-based Q&A systems. An automatic evaluation technique is needed for dynamic Q&A systems. This paper presents a set of metrics that have been implemented in our web-based Q&A system, namely NSIR. It also shows the correlations between the(More)
In the present study, we determined where thalamic neurons projecting to the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) are located relative to pallidothalamic and cerebellothalamic inputs and nuclear boundaries. We employed a triple-labeling technique in the same owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The cerebellothalamic projections were labeled with injections of(More)
We present a large-scale meta evaluation of eight evaluation measures for both single-document and multi-document summarizers. To this end we built a corpus consisting of (a) 100 Million automatic summaries using six summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual abstracts and extracts, and (c) 200(More)
In three monkeys trained to finely grade grip force in a visuomotor step-tracking task, the effect of the context on neuronal force correlates was quantitatively assessed. Three trial types, which differed in force range, number, and direction of the force steps, were presented pseudo-randomly and cued with the color of the cursor serving as feedback of the(More)