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This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza-tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a(More)
Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage(More)
The official evaluation of TREC-style Q&A systems is done manually, which is quite expensive and not scalable to web-based Q&A systems. An automatic evaluation technique is needed for dynamic Q&A systems. This paper presents a set of metrics that have been implemented in our web-based Q&A system, namely NSIR. It also shows the correlations between the(More)
We present a large-scale meta evaluation of eight evaluation measures for both single-document and multi-document summarizers. To this end we built a corpus consisting of (a) 100 Million automatic summaries using six summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual abstracts and extracts, and (c) 200(More)
The web is now becoming one of the largest information and knowledge repositories. Many large scale search engines (Google, Fast, Northern Light, etc.) have emerged to help users find information. In this paper, we study how we can effectively use these existing search engines to mine the Web and discover the "correct" answers to factual natural language(More)
The retina is the most metabolically active tissue in the human body and hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death has been implicated in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study is to determine whether muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine, a classic antiglaucoma drug, possesses neuroprotection against cobalt chloride(More)
Open Source Indicators (OSI) such as Google Trends (GT) promise to uncover the social dynamics associated with behavior that precede episodes of civil unrest. There are myriad reasons why societies may become unstable: Our analysis does not require or inquire the underlying reasons for discontent but instead takes into account differences associated with(More)
A Ca(2+) signaling model is proposed to consider the crosstalk of Ca(2+) ions between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria within microdomains around inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Our model predicts that there is a critical IP3R-MCU distance at which 50% of the ER-released Ca(2+) is(More)