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This paper describes the functionality of MEAD, a comprehensive, public domain, open source, multidocument multilingual summariza-tion environment that has been thus far downloaded by more than 500 organizations. MEAD has been used in a variety of summarization applications ranging from summarization for mobile devices to Web page summarization within a(More)
Signaling by the Notch surface receptor controls cell fate determination in a broad spectrum of tissues. This signaling is triggered by the interaction of the Notch protein with what, so far, have been thought to be transmembrane ligands expressed on adjacent cells. Here biochemical and genetic analyses show that the ligand Delta is cleaved on the surface,(More)
We have mapped conserved regions of enhanced DNase I accessibility within the endogenous chromosomal locus of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) transcription factors were designed to target DNA sequences contained within the DNase I-hypersensitive regions. These ZFPs, when fused to either VP16 or p65(More)
The P2X7 nucleotide receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed widely in cells of hematopoietic origin. Our purpose was to explore the involvement of the P2X7 receptor in bone development and remodeling by characterizing the phenotype of mice genetically modified to disrupt the P2X7 receptor [knockout (KO)]. Femoral length did not differ between KO and(More)
Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage(More)
Allogeneic pancreatic islet transplantation theoretically represents a cure for type 1 diabetes. However, current immune suppressive therapies are often associated with undesired side effects. Given this problem, and the shortage of human islet donors, the majority of type 1 diabetes patients cannot currently be offered an islet transplant. However, it has(More)
The official evaluation of TREC-style Q&A systems is done manually, which is quite expensive and not scalable to web-based Q&A systems. An automatic evaluation technique is needed for dynamic Q&A systems. This paper presents a set of metrics that have been implemented in our web-based Q&A system, namely NSIR. It also shows the correlations between the(More)
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a marker predictive for response of breast cancers to endocrine therapy. About 30% of breast cancers, however, are hormone- independent because of lack of ERα expression. New strategies are needed for re-expression of ERα and sensitization of ER-negative breast cancer cells to selective ER modulators. The present report shows(More)
The neuron-like differentiation of PC12 cells is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) through stimulation of a membrane-bound protooncoprotein signaling pathway containing the NGF receptor Trk, the tyrosine kinase Src, and the GTP-binding protein Ras. The Raf-1 and B-raf protooncogenes encode cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases that are stimulated by NGF(More)
The unique bioenergetic feature of cancer, aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Reversing the glycolytic phenotype may trigger apoptosis in tumor cells. Recently, dichloroacetate (DCA) was proven to produce significant cytotoxic effects in certain tumor cells through this distinct mechanism. In(More)