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Impaired inflammatory functions may be critical factors in the mechanisms by which HIV-1 enters the CNS. Evidence indicates that a viral gene product, the protein Tat, can markedly contribute to these effects. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Tat can upregulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules and facilitate(More)
The MEA Polycomb gene is imprinted in the Arabidopsis endosperm. DME DNA glycosylase activates maternal MEA allele expression in the central cell of the female gametophyte, the progenitor of the endosperm. Maternal mutant dme or mea alleles result in seed abortion. We identified mutations that suppress dme seed abortion and found that they reside in the(More)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that cause vascular inflammation and facilitate the development of brain metastases. The crucial event in metastasis formation is adhesion of blood-borne tumor cells to the vascular endothelium, followed by their transcapillary migration. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely distributed environmental toxicants that contribute to numerous disease states. The main route of exposure to PCBs is through the gastrointestinal tract; however, little is known about the effects of PCBs on intestinal epithelial barrier functions. OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to address(More)
The contribution of a dysfunctional transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF beta RII) to prostate cancer initiation and progression was investigated in an in vivo mouse model. Transgenic mice harboring the dominant-negative mutant TGF-beta type II receptor (DNTGF beta RII) in mouse epithelial cell were crossed with the TRAMP prostate cancer(More)
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, can be involved in inflammatory-mediated cytotoxicity. Although the contribution of COX-2 to peripheral inflammation is well understood, its role in brain inflammation is not fully recognized. In particular, COX-2 involvement in inflammatory responses induced by HIV proteins in the(More)
(1) Alterations of brain microvasculature and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity are commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. These changes are most frequently found in human immunodeficiency virus-related encephalitis (HIVE) and in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HAD). (2) It(More)
BACKGROUND TGF-beta regulates prostate growth by inhibiting epithelial cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis through eliciting a dynamic signaling pathway. In metastatic prostate cancer, however, TGF-beta serves as a tumor promoter. TGF-beta engages Smad-dependent and Smad-independent mechanisms to exert its action. During prostate tumorigenesis,(More)
Impaired function of the brain vasculature might contribute to the development of HIV-associated dementia. For example, injury or dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus allow accelerated entry of the HIV-1 virus into the CNS. Mechanisms of injury to BMEC during HIV-1(More)
Exposure of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein can decrease expression and change distribution of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5. Owing to the importance of claudin-5 in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, the present study focused on the regulatory mechanisms of(More)