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Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, can be involved in inflammatory-mediated cytotoxicity. Although the contribution of COX-2 to peripheral inflammation is well understood, its role in brain inflammation is not fully recognized. In particular, COX-2 involvement in inflammatory responses induced by HIV proteins in the(More)
(1) Alterations of brain microvasculature and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity are commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. These changes are most frequently found in human immunodeficiency virus-related encephalitis (HIVE) and in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HAD). (2) It(More)
Impaired function of the brain vasculature might contribute to the development of HIV-associated dementia. For example, injury or dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus allow accelerated entry of the HIV-1 virus into the CNS. Mechanisms of injury to BMEC during HIV-1(More)
Exposure of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein can decrease expression and change distribution of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5. Owing to the importance of claudin-5 in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, the present study focused on the regulatory mechanisms of(More)
Impaired inflammatory functions may be critical factors in the mechanisms by which HIV-1 enters the CNS. Evidence indicates that a viral gene product, the protein Tat, can markedly contribute to these effects. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Tat can upregulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules and facilitate(More)
Among the different factors which can contribute to CNS alterations associated with HIV infection, Tat protein is considered to play a critical role. Evidence indicates that Tat can contribute to brain vascular pathology through induction of endothelial cell activation. In the present study, we hypothesized that Tat can affect expression of P-glycoprotein(More)
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is widely believed to be the main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into the central nervous system (CNS). Although mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, alterations of tight junction protein expression can contribute, at least in part, to this phenomenon. Tight junctions are(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein is a potent transactivator of viral replication. It is actively released from HIV-infected cells and has been shown to induce cell injury effects. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor of HIV infection and we hypothesize that alcohol and Tat may interact in an additive or synergistic fashion to influence(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely distributed environmental toxicants that contribute to numerous disease states. The main route of exposure to PCBs is through the gastrointestinal tract; however, little is known about the effects of PCBs on intestinal epithelial barrier functions. OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to address(More)
Tat protein released from HIV-infected blood-borne leukocytes can contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and induction of inflammatory responses and can provide entry for HIV into the brain. To mimic this pathology, Tat was injected into the tail vein of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with Tat markedly upregulated expression of(More)
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