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Impaired function of the brain vasculature might contribute to the development of HIV-associated dementia. For example, injury or dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus allow accelerated entry of the HIV-1 virus into the CNS. Mechanisms of injury to BMEC during HIV-1(More)
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is widely believed to be the main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into the central nervous system (CNS). Although mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, alterations of tight junction protein expression can contribute, at least in part, to this phenomenon. Tight junctions are(More)
The MEA Polycomb gene is imprinted in the Arabidopsis endosperm. DME DNA glycosylase activates maternal MEA allele expression in the central cell of the female gametophyte, the progenitor of the endosperm. Maternal mutant dme or mea alleles result in seed abortion. We identified mutations that suppress dme seed abortion and found that they reside in the(More)
Impaired inflammatory functions may be critical factors in the mechanisms by which HIV-1 enters the CNS. Evidence indicates that a viral gene product, the protein Tat, can markedly contribute to these effects. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Tat can upregulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules and facilitate(More)
1. Alterations of brain microvasculature and the disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity are commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. These changes are most frequently found in human immunodeficiency virus-related encephalitis (HIVE) and in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HAD). 2. It has(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely distributed environmental toxicants that contribute to numerous disease states. The main route of exposure to PCBs is through the gastrointestinal tract; however, little is known about the effects of PCBs on intestinal epithelial barrier functions. OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to address(More)
The contribution of a dysfunctional transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF beta RII) to prostate cancer initiation and progression was investigated in an in vivo mouse model. Transgenic mice harboring the dominant-negative mutant TGF-beta type II receptor (DNTGF beta RII) in mouse epithelial cell were crossed with the TRAMP prostate cancer(More)
Exposure of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein can decrease expression and change distribution of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5. Owing to the importance of claudin-5 in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, the present study focused on the regulatory mechanisms of(More)
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, can be involved in inflammatory-mediated cytotoxicity. Although the contribution of COX-2 to peripheral inflammation is well understood, its role in brain inflammation is not fully recognized. In particular, COX-2 involvement in inflammatory responses induced by HIV proteins in the(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain a serious health risk in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome despite significant advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Specific drugs used for HAART are substrates for the efflux transport systems, such as the multidrug(More)