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Analysis of the genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals two IcmF family genes in putative type VI secretion system (vpT6SS) clusters in chromosomes 1 (icmF1) and 2 (icmF2). The icmF1 gene is present in majority of clinical isolates (87.5 %), but has a low fraction (25.0 %) in environmental isolates. However, icmF2 is contained in all strains of(More)
MEG2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase with a unique NH2-terminal lipid-binding domain, binds to and is modulated by the polyphosphoinositides PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3. Recent data implicate MEG2 in vesicle fusion events in leukocytes. Through the genesis of Meg2-deficient mice, we demonstrate that Meg2-/- embryos manifest hemorrhages, neural tube defects(More)
The application of electric pulses to tissues causes cell membrane destabilization, allowing exogenous molecules to enter the cells. This delivery technique can be used for plasmid gene therapy. Reporter gene expression after plasmid delivery with eight representative published protocols was compared in B16.F10 mouse melanoma tumors. This expression varied(More)
For kinetic studies of protein nitration reactions, we have developed a method for the quantification of nitrotyrosine residues in protein molecules by liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector of ultraviolet-visible absorption. Nitrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and nitrated ovalbumin (OVA) were synthesized and used as standards for the(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous studies on various enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating an enzyme) have been mostly carried out in vitro and have focused on preserving catalytic activity and improving the stability of the enzyme. Until now, few studies have focused on their in vivo fate. Similarly, although we have previously reported the increased in(More)
Nitration of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 alters the immune responses toward this protein, but the underlying chemical mechanisms are not yet understood. Here we address the efficiency and site-selectivity of the nitration reaction of recombinant protein samples of Bet v 1.0101 with different nitrating agents relevant for laboratory(More)
An experiment was conducted to investigate whether intracellular zinc depletion can actually change expression of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) and VPAC2 in cultured hippocampal neurons as well as their significance. Hippocampal neurons were obtained by primary culture from hippocampus of newborn Wistar rats. Cultured hippocampal neurons were(More)
Wood-feeding termites live on cellulolytic materials that typically lack of nitrogen sources. It was reported that symbiotic microbes play important roles in the maintenance of a normal nitrogen contents in termite by different metabolisms including nitrogen fixation. In this study, the diversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms in the symbiotic intestinal(More)
Pleural tuberculosis (TB), together with lymphatic TB, constitutes more than half of all extrapulmonary cases. Pleural effusions (PEs) in TB are representative of lymphocytic PEs which are dominated by T cells. However, the mechanism underlying T lymphocytes homing and accumulation in PEs is still incompletely understood. Here we performed a comparative(More)
Beeswax was modified through the direct blending of nano-TiO 2 , chitosan, acid dyes, and neutral dyes. With the varied modified beeswax, hot waxing was conducted on compressed poplar wood. Treated wood surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Results show that the C, O, N, Au, S, and Ti elements in(More)