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Viruses are the most common biological entities in the marine environment. There has not been a global survey of these viruses, and consequently, it is not known what types of viruses are in Earth's oceans or how they are distributed. Metagenomic analyses of 184 viral assemblages collected over a decade and representing 68 sites in four major oceanic(More)
Models of medium-induced radiative parton energy loss account for the strong suppression of high-p(T) hadron spectra in square root of (S)NN=200 GeV Au-Au collisions at BNL RHIC in terms of a single "jet quenching parameter" q. We observe that q can be given a model-independent, nonperturbative, quantum field theoretic definition in terms of the(More)
One of the most cited hypotheses explaining the inordinate success of a small proportion of introduced plants that become pests is the ‘natural enemies hypothesis’. This states that invasive introduced plants spread rapidly because they are liberated from their co-evolved natural enemies. This hypothesis had not been properly tested until recently. Previous(More)
The coral holobiont is a dynamic assemblage of the coral animal, zooxanthellae, endolithic algae and fungi, Bacteria,Archaea and viruses. Zooxanthellae and some Bacteria form relatively stable and species-specific associations with corals. Other associations are less specific; coral-associated Archaea differ from those in the water column, but the same(More)
One of the challenges in relating experimental measurements of the suppression in the number of J/psi mesons produced in heavy ion collisions to lattice QCD calculations is that whereas the lattice calculations treat J/psi mesons at rest, in a heavy ion collision a cc[over ] pair can have a significant velocity with respect to the hot fluid produced in the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Abnormalities on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images are reported in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). To our knowledge, no large study has been conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of DWI and FLAIR imaging for diagnosing CJD. METHODS Two neuroradiologists, blinded(More)
Gravity solutions dual to d-dimensional field theories at finite charge density have a near-horizon region which is AdS2 × Rd−1. The scale invariance of the AdS2 region implies that at low energies the dual field theory exhibits emergent quantum critical behavior controlled by a (0+1)-dimensional CFT. This interpretation sheds light on recently-discovered(More)
The species composition and metabolic potential of microbial and viral communities are predictable and stable for most ecosystems. This apparent stability contradicts theoretical models as well as the viral-microbial dynamics observed in simple ecosystems, both of which show Kill-the-Winner behavior causing cycling of the dominant taxa. Microbial and viral(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are two diseases that are common in the general population. To date, many studies have been conducted and demonstrate a direct link between NAFLD and CVD, but the exact mechanisms for this complex relationship are not well established. A systematic search of the PubMed database(More)