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Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces(More)
Physiological anti-inflammatory mechanisms can potentially be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here we report that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inhibits HMGB1 release from human macrophages by signaling through a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, is more efficient than acetylcholine and(More)
[1] Aircraft measurements of organic carbon (OC) aerosol by two independent methods over the NW Pacific during the ACE-Asia campaign reveal unexpectedly high concentrations in the free troposphere (FT). Concentrations average 4 mg sm 3 in the 2–6.5 km column with little vertical gradient. These values are 10–100 times higher than computed with a global(More)
The importance of the macrophage in innate immunity is underscored by its secretion of an array of powerful immunoregulatory and effector molecules. We report herein that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a product of activated macrophages, sustains macrophage survival and function by suppressing activation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis.(More)
[1] A unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model II0 is applied to simulate an equilibrium CO2forced climate in the year 2100 to examine the effects of climate change on global distributions of tropospheric ozone and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, primary organic carbon,(More)
Calsequestrin, the major Ca2+ storage protein of muscle, coordinately binds and releases 40-50 Ca2+ ions per molecule for each contraction-relaxation cycle by an uncertain mechanism. We have determined the structure of rabbit skeletal muscle calsequestrin. Three very negative thioredoxin-like domains surround a hydrophilic center. Each monomer makes two(More)
Phosphorus (P) plays important roles in plant growth and development. MicroRNAs involved in P signaling have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice, but P-responsive microRNAs and their targets in soybean leaves and roots are poorly understood. Using high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) technology, we sequenced four small RNA libraries from leaves(More)
The innate immune system protects against infection and tissue injury through the specialized organs of the reticuloendothelial system, including the lungs, liver, and spleen. The central nervous system regulates innate immune responses via the vagus nerve, a mechanism termed the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits(More)
As an essential plant macronutrient, the low availability of phosphorus (P) in most soils imposes serious limitation on crop production. Plants have evolved complex responsive and adaptive mechanisms for acquisition, remobilization and recycling of phosphate (Pi) to maintain P homeostasis. Spatio-temporal molecular, physiological, and biochemical Pi(More)
Root gravitropism may be an important element of plant response to phosphorus availability because it determines root foraging in fertile topsoil horizons, and thereby phosphorus acquisition. In this study we seek to test this hypothesis in both two dimensional paper growth pouch and three-dimensional solid media of sand and soil cultures. Five common bean(More)