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An RNA-based gene silencing pathway that protects bacteria and archaea from viruses and other genome invaders is hypothesized to arise from guide RNAs encoded by CRISPR loci and proteins encoded by the cas genes. CRISPR loci contain multiple short invader-derived sequences separated by short repeats. The presence of virus-specific sequences within CRISPR(More)
In this paper we examine the different formulations of Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) [D. Gillespie, J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340 (1977)] with respect to computational efficiency, and propose an optimization to improve the efficiency of the direct method. Based on careful timing studies and an analysis of the time-consuming operations, we(More)
Nop56p and Nop58p are two core proteins of the box C/D snoRNPs that interact concurrently with fibrillarin and snoRNAs to function in enzyme assembly and catalysis. Here we report the 2.9 A resolution co-crystal structure of an archaeal homolog of Nop56p/Nop58p, Nop5p, in complex with fibrillarin from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AF) and the methyl donor(More)
This paper is a compilation of notes on 142 fungal taxa, including five new families, 20 new genera, and 100 new species, representing a wide taxonomic and geographic range. The new families, Ascocylindricaceae, Caryosporaceae and Wicklowiaceae (Ascomycota) are introduced based on their distinct lineages and unique morphology. The new Dothideomycete genera(More)
The RNA splicing endonuclease cleaves two phosphodiester bonds within folded precursor RNAs during intron removal, producing the functional RNAs required for protein synthesis. Here we describe at a resolution of 2.85 angstroms the structure of a splicing endonuclease from Archaeglobus fulgidus bound with a bulge-helix-bulge RNA containing a noncleaved and(More)
Among the tRNA population of the archaeal parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans are five species assembled from separate 5' and 3' tRNA halves and four species derived from tRNA precursors containing introns. In both groups an intervening sequence element must be removed during tRNA maturation. A bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) motif is the hallmark structure required by(More)
It is a common spoof to use a photograph to fool face recognition algorithm. In light of differences in optical flow fields generated by movements of two-dimensional planes and three-dimensional objects, we proposed a new liveness detection method for face recognition. Under the assumption that the test region is a two-dimensional plane, we can obtain a(More)
A number of previous studies have examined music-related plasticity in terms of multi-sensory and motor integration but little is known about the functional and effective connectivity patterns of spontaneous intrinsic activity in these systems during the resting state in musicians. Using functional connectivity and Granger causal analysis, functional and(More)
In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm to predict the probability distribution of the circuit delay while accounting for spatial correlations. We exploit the structure of the covariance matrix to decouple the correlated variables to independent ones in linear-time, as opposed to conventional techniques which have a cubic-time complexity.(More)