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In this paper we examine the different formulations of Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) [D. Gillespie, J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340 (1977)] with respect to computational efficiency, and propose an optimization to improve the efficiency of the direct method. Based on careful timing studies and an analysis of the time-consuming operations, we(More)
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) were discovered more than two decades ago. Today the PDGF family of growth factors consists of five different disulphide-linked dimers built up of four different polypeptide chains encoded by four different genes. These isoforms, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC and PDGF-DD, act via two receptor tyrosine kinases,(More)
The restoration of energy balance during ischemia is critical to cellular survival; however, relatively little is known concerning the regulation of neuronal metabolic pathways in response to central nervous system ischemia. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master sensor of energy balance in peripheral tissues, is phosphorylated and activated when(More)
Robust small target detection of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is very important in infrared search and track applications for self-defense or attacks. Consequently, an effective small target detection algorithm inspired by the contrast mechanism of human vision system and derived kernel model is presented in this paper. At the first stage, the local(More)
In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm to predict the probability distribution of the circuit delay while accounting for spatial correlations. We exploit the structure of the covariance matrix to decouple the correlated variables to independent ones in linear-time, as opposed to conventional techniques which have a cubic-time complexity.(More)
This paper is a compilation of notes on 142 fungal taxa, including five new families, 20 new genera, and 100 new species, representing a wide taxonomic and geographic range. The new families, Ascocylindricaceae, Caryosporaceae and Wicklowiaceae (Ascomycota) are introduced based on their distinct lineages and unique morphology. The new Dothideomycete genera(More)
We utilized a full genome cDNA microarray to identify the genes that comprise the peroxide stimulon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. We determined that a gene (slr1738) encoding a protein similar to PerR in Bacillus subtilis was induced by peroxide. We constructed a PerR knockout strain and used it to help identify components of the(More)
BACKGROUND The paradigm shift to evidence-based nursing practice in the United States has been slow. Although multiple barriers to evidence-based practice (EBP) have been identified through prior studies, there is a gap in the literature specifically identifying key variables (e.g., belief that EBP produces quality outcomes) that are correlated with the(More)