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In this paper we examine the different formulations of Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) [D. Gillespie, J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340 (1977)] with respect to computational efficiency, and propose an optimization to improve the efficiency of the direct method. Based on careful timing studies and an analysis of the time-consuming operations, we(More)
GABA-mediated fast-hyperpolarizing inhibition depends on extrusion of chloride by the neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter, KCC2. Here we show that sustained interictal-like activity in hippocampal slices downregulates KCC2 mRNA and protein expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which leads to a reduced capacity for neuronal Cl- extrusion. This effect is(More)
Pathophysiological activity and various kinds of traumatic insults are known to have deleterious long-term effects on neuronal Cl- regulation, which can lead to a suppression of fast postsynaptic GABAergic responses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increases neuronal excitability through a conjunction of mechanisms that include regulation of the(More)
In biological systems formed by living cells, the small populations of some reactant species can result in inherent randomness which cannot be captured by traditional deterministic approaches. In that case, a more accurate simulation can be obtained by using the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA). Many stochastic realizations are required to capture(More)
  • Hong Li, Stanislav Khirug, Chunlin Cai, Anastasia Ludwig, Peter Blaesse, Julia Kolikova +9 others
  • 2007
The neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter, KCC2, induces a developmental shift to render GABAergic transmission from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing. Now we demonstrate that KCC2, independently of its Cl(-) transport function, is a key factor in the maturation of dendritic spines. This morphogenic role of KCC2 in the development of excitatory synapses is(More)
—Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are considered as a prospective interconnect material. A comprehensive conductance and delay analysis of GNR interconnects is presented in this paper. Using a simple tight-binding model and the linear response Landauer formula, the conductance model of GNR is derived. Several GNR structures are examined, and the conductance(More)
The inhibition of inappropriate behaviors is important for adaptive living in changing environments. The present study investigated gender-related behavioral inhibitory control by recording event-related potentials for standard and deviant stimuli while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by accurately pressing different keys within 1000(More)
This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were asked to(More)
Traditional deterministic approaches for simulation of chemically reacting systems fail to capture the randomness inherent in such systems at scales common in intracellular biochemical processes. In this manuscript, we briefly review the state of the art in discrete stochastic and multiscale algorithms for simulation of biochemical systems and we present(More)
A minimally supervised machine learning framework is described for extracting relations of various complexity. Bootstrapping starts from a small set of n-ary relation instances as " seeds " , in order to automatically learn pattern rules from parsed data, which then can extract new instances of the relation and its projections. We propose a novel rule(More)