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l-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) exists as both membrane-associated and soluble forms in the mammalian brain. Here, we propose that there is a functional and structural coupling between the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by membrane-associated GAD and its packaging into synaptic vesicles (SVs) by vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This(More)
BACKGROUND We previously showed microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma are potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection. Here, we aimed to develop specific blood-based miRNA assay for breast cancer detection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS TaqMan-based miRNA profiling was performed in tumor, adjacent non-tumor, corresponding plasma from breast cancer(More)
The termination of protein synthesis occurs through the specific recognition of a stop codon in the A site of the ribosome by a release factor (RF), which then catalyzes the hydrolysis of the nascent protein chain from the P-site transfer RNA. Here we present, at a resolution of 3.5 angstroms, the crystal structure of RF2 in complex with its cognate UGA(More)
Over 10000 individual trajectories of nonphotobleaching single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were tracked as they are incorporated into and expelled from NIH-3T3 cells in real time on a perfusion microscope stage. An analysis of mean square displacement allows the complete construction of the mechanistic steps involved from single duration experiments. We(More)
BACKGROUND Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a(More)
A live attenuated influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) vaccine virus (VN04 ca) has receptor binding specificity to alpha2,3-linked sialosides (alpha2,3SAL), and a single dose induces a minimal serum antibody response in mice and ferrets. In contrast, A/Hong Kong/213/2003 (H5N1) vaccine virus (HK03 ca) binds to both alpha2,6SAL and alpha2,3SAL and generates(More)
Tetrathiomolybdate is an anticopper drug with a unique mechanism of action. Tetrathiomolybdate complexes copper to protein and itself, rendering the copper unavailable for cellular uptake. It was originally developed for Wilson's disease, and is now being developed as an antiangiogenic agent for the treatment of cancer. Many angiogenic cytokines require(More)
The four temperature-sensitive (ts) loci identified in the PB1 and PB2 gene segments of cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus, the master donor virus for influenza A virus (MDV-A) FluMist vaccines, were introduced into a divergent A/Puerto Rico/8/34 influenza virus strain. Recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus with these four introduced ts loci(More)
To prepare for influenza pandemics that may be caused by the H2 and H6 subtype influenza viruses, live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) H2 and H6 vaccines are being developed and evaluated. The H2 and H6 vaccine candidates with different receptor binding preferences specified by amino acid substitutions at residues 226 and 228 were generated and evaluated(More)
Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex and serious condition of pregnancy. Trophoblasts in human placenta can be separated and collected by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM). Protein in trophoblasts have been extracted and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), finally 962 unique proteins are identified by liquid(More)