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Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) is perhaps the most fundamental of decision support operations in geographical information systems (GIS). This paper reviews two main MCE approaches employed in GIS, namely Boolean and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC), and discusses issues and problems associated with both. To resolve the conceptual di erences between the(More)
This paper considers the self-stabilizing leader-election problem in a model of interacting anonymous finite-state agents. Leader election is a fundamental problem in distributed systems; many distributed problems are easily solved with the help of a central coordinator. Self-stabilizing algorithms do not require initialization in order to operate correctly(More)
Based on the classic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method, we propose , analyze and test an algorithm for solving a class of equality-constrained non-smooth optimization problems (chiefly but not necessarily convex programs) with a particular structure. The algorithm effectively combines an alternating direction technique with a nonmonotone line search to(More)
In this millennium, global drylands face a myriad of problems that present tough research, management, and policy challenges. Recent advances in dryland development, however, together with the integrative approaches of global change and sustainability science, suggest that concerns about land degradation, poverty, safeguarding biodiversity, and protecting(More)
With the development of the NAND-Flash technology, NAND-Flash based Solid-State Disk (SSD) has been attracting a great deal of attention from both industry and academia. While a range of SSD research topics, from interface techniques to buffer management and Flash Translation Layer (FTL), from performance to endurance and energy efficiency, have been(More)
Fault tolerance is an essential requirement for real-time systems, due to the potentially catastrophic consequences of faults. In this paper, we investigate an efficient off-line scheduling algorithm in which real-time tasks with precedence constraints can tolerate one processor's permanent failure in a heterogeneous system with fully connected network. The(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play important roles in the modulation of anxiety, mood stabilizers, and pathophysiology of affective disorders. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene (Val66Met) has been found to be associated with depression and anxiety disorders. The humanized BDNF(Met/Met) knock-in(More)
This article studies self-stabilization in networks of anonymous, asynchronously interacting nodes where the size of the network is unknown. Constant-space protocols are given for Dijkstra-style round-robin token circulation, leader election in rings, two-hop coloring in degree-bounded graphs, and establishing consistent global orientation in an undirected(More)