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Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) is perhaps the most fundamental of decision support operations in geographical information systems (GIS). This paper reviews two main MCE approaches employed in GIS, namely Boolean and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC), and discusses issues and problems associated with both. To resolve the conceptual di erences between the(More)
This paper considers the self-stabilizing leader-election problem in a model of interacting anonymous finite-state agents. Leader election is a fundamental problem in distributed systems; many distributed problems are easily solved with the help of a central coordinator. Self-stabilizing algorithms do not require initialization in order to operate correctly(More)
Based on the classic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method, we propose , analyze and test an algorithm for solving a class of equality-constrained non-smooth optimization problems (chiefly but not necessarily convex programs) with a particular structure. The algorithm effectively combines an alternating direction technique with a nonmonotone line search to(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play important roles in the modulation of anxiety, mood stabilizers, and pathophysiology of affective disorders. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene (Val66Met) has been found to be associated with depression and anxiety disorders. The humanized BDNF(Met/Met) knock-in(More)
This article studies self-stabilization in networks of anonymous, asynchronously interacting nodes where the size of the network is unknown. Constant-space protocols are given for Dijkstra-style round-robin token circulation, leader election in rings, two-hop coloring in degree-bounded graphs, and establishing consistent global orientation in an undirected(More)
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). The APOE ε4 allele markedly increases AD risk and decreases age of onset, likely through its strong effect on the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. In contrast, the APOE ε2 allele appears to decrease AD risk. Most rare,(More)
Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) within extracellular spaces of the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). In sporadic, late-onset AD, there is little evidence for increased Abeta production, suggesting that decreased elimination from the brain may contribute to elevated levels of Abeta and plaque formation. Efflux transport of Abeta across the(More)
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (sirtuins) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases that regulate important biological processes. Mammals have seven sirtuins, Sirt1 to Sirt7. Four of them (Sirt4 to Sirt7) have no detectable or very weak deacetylase activity. We found that Sirt5 is an efficient protein lysine desuccinylase(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype has a major influence on the risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Different apoE isoforms may alter AD pathogenesis via their interactions with the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). Mice lacking the lipid transporter ABCA1 were found to have markedly decreased levels and lipidation of apoE in the central nervous system. We(More)