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For the past 25 years, it has been known that alterations in DNA methylation (DNAm) occur in cancer, including hypomethylation of oncogenes and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. However, most studies of cancer methylation have assumed that functionally important DNAm will occur in promoters, and that most DNAm changes in cancer occur in CpG(More)
In addition to intracellular organelles, eukaryotic cells also contain extracellular organelles that are released, or shed, into the microenvironment. These membranous extracellular organelles include exosomes, shedding microvesicles (SMVs) and apoptotic blebs (ABs), many of which exhibit pleiotropic biological functions. Because extracellular organelle(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have long been considered promising drug targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. But the lack of specificity, isoform selectivity and poor biopharmaceutical profile of PI3K inhibitors have so far hampered rigorous disease-relevant target validation.(More)
Active analog approach has been applied to determine the pharmacophoric conformations of the allylamine antimycotics. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) has been used to establish 3D-QSAR of 48 allylamine antimycotics against six common human pathogenic fungi. Two different alignment rules were compared in the meantime. Five new synthetic(More)
Epigenetic modifications must underlie lineage-specific differentiation as terminally differentiated cells express tissue-specific genes, but their DNA sequence is unchanged. Haematopoiesis provides a well-defined model to study epigenetic modifications during cell-fate decisions, as multipotent progenitors (MPPs) differentiate into progressively restricted(More)
Stem cells are controlled, in part, by genetic pathways frequently dysregulated during human tumorigenesis. Either stimulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling or overexpression of telomerase is sufficient to activate quiescent epidermal stem cells in vivo, although the mechanisms by which telomerase exerts these effects are not understood. Here we show that(More)
K/BxN T cell receptor transgenic mice are a model of inflammatory arthritis, similar to rheumatoid arthritis. Disease in these animals is focused specifically on the joints but stems from autoreactivity to a ubiquitously expressed antigen, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). T and B cells are both required for disease initiation, but anti-GPI(More)
Dysregulated signal transduction in innate and adaptive immune cells is known to be associated with the development of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, targeting intracellular signalling of the pro-inflammatory cytokine network heralds hope for the next generation of anti-inflammatory drugs. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks)(More)
Beta-catenin-dependent or canonical Wnt signals are fundamental in animal development and tumor progression. Using Xenopus laevis, we report that the BTB/POZ zinc finger family member Kaiso directly represses canonical Wnt gene targets (Siamois, c-Fos, Cyclin-D1, and c-Myc) in conjunction with TCF/LEF (TCF). Analogous to beta-catenin relief of TCF(More)
Using an animal model system and depletion-rescue strategies, we have addressed the requirement and functions of armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF) and p120 catenins in early vertebrate embryogenesis. We find that xARVCF and Xp120 are essential to development given that depletion of either results in disrupted gastrulation(More)