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For the past 25 years, it has been known that alterations in DNA methylation (DNAm) occur in cancer, including hypomethylation of oncogenes and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. However, most studies of cancer methylation have assumed that functionally important DNAm will occur in promoters, and that most DNAm changes in cancer occur in CpG(More)
In addition to intracellular organelles, eukaryotic cells also contain extracellular organelles that are released, or shed, into the microenvironment. These membranous extracellular organelles include exosomes, shedding microvesicles (SMVs) and apoptotic blebs (ABs), many of which exhibit pleiotropic biological functions. Because extracellular organelle(More)
Using an animal model system and depletion-rescue strategies, we have addressed the requirement and functions of armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF) and p120 catenins in early vertebrate embryogenesis. We find that xARVCF and Xp120 are essential to development given that depletion of either results in disrupted gastrulation(More)
Stem cells are controlled, in part, by genetic pathways frequently dysregulated during human tumorigenesis. Either stimulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling or overexpression of telomerase is sufficient to activate quiescent epidermal stem cells in vivo, although the mechanisms by which telomerase exerts these effects are not understood. Here we show that(More)
—In cognitive radio (CR) networks, the end-to-end transmission-control protocol (TCP) performance experienced by secondary users is a very important factor that evaluates the secondary user perceived quality of service (QoS). Most previous works in CR networks ignore the TCP performance. In this paper, we take a cross-layer design approach to jointly(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an(More)
Exosomes are 40-100-nm-diameter nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are released from diverse cell types. To better understand the biological role of exosomes and to avoid confounding data arising from proteinaceous contaminants, it is important to work with highly purified material. Here, we describe an immunoaffinity capture method using the colon(More)
In spontaneous inflammatory arthritis of K/BxN T cell receptor transgenic mice, the effector phase of the disease is provoked by binding of immunoglobulins (Igs) to joint surfaces. Inflammatory cytokines are known to be involved in human inflammatory arthritis, in particular rheumatoid arthritis, although, overall, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the human(More)
In previous experiments, lean Syrian hamsters fasted on days 1 and 2 of the estrous cycle failed to show sex behavior and ovulation normally expected to occur on the evening of day 4. The first goal of the present experiment was to determine whether systemic treatment with the ob (obese) protein leptin could reverse the effects of fasting on estrous(More)
Protein synthesis in all cells begins with recruitment of the small ribosomal subunit to the initiation codon in a messenger RNA. In some eukaryotic viruses, RNA upstream of the coding region forms an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that directly binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit and enables translation initiation in the absence of many canonical(More)