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Protein phosphorylation is estimated to affect 30% of the proteome and is a major regulatory mechanism that controls many basic cellular processes. Until recently, our biochemical understanding of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has been extremely limited; only one half of the yeast kinases have known in vivo substrates and the phosphorylating(More)
Diffuse infiltrative invasion is a major cause for the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Using human glioma stem cells (GSCs) that recapitulate the invasive propensity of primary GBM, we find that EphA2 critically regulates GBM invasion in vivo. EphA2 was expressed in all seven(More)
Whether to legislate to maintain " net neutrality " , the current status quo of prohibiting broadband service providers from charging online websites for preferential access to their residential and commercial customers, has become a subject under fierce debate. We develop a stylized game-theoretic model to address two critical issues of the net neutrality:(More)
This paper proposes a novel method for breast cancer diagnosis using the feature generated by genetic programming (GP) based on Fisher criterion. GP as an evolutionary mechanism provides a training structure to generate features. Fisher criterion is employed to help GP optimize features whose values corresponding to pattern vector belonging to the same(More)
Pontine noradrenergic A5 neurons play a pivotal role in maturation and regulation of the brainstem respiratory rhythm-generating network. Analysis of newborn brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-null mice revealed a marked loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive A5 neurons compared to wildtype controls that was rescued by null mutation of the proapoptotic(More)
In this paper, we consider a general bi-directional relay network with two sources and N relays when neither the source nodes nor the relays know the channel state information (CSI). A joint relay selection and analog network coding using differential modulation (RS-ANC-DM) is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the two sources employ differential modulations(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies revealed that baicalin, a flavonoid compound derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, could promote neuron differentiation of NSPCs after commencing the differentiation process in vitro. However, this may not be the most efficacious strategy to determinate cell fate. Here, we have investigated whether baicalin can(More)
Both pro- and antioncogenic properties have been attributed to EphA2 kinase. We report that a possible cause for this apparent paradox is diametrically opposite roles of EphA2 in regulating cell migration and invasion. While activation of EphA2 with its ligand ephrin-A1 inhibited chemotactic migration of glioma and prostate cancer cells, EphA2(More)