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Dynamins are 100-kDa GTPases that are essential for clathrin-coated vesicle formation during receptor-mediated endocytosis. To date, three different dynamin genes have been identified, with each gene expressing at least four different alternatively spliced forms. Currently, it is unclear whether these different dynamin gene products perform distinct or(More)
The dynamins comprise a large family of mechanoenzymes known to participate in membrane modeling events. All three conventional dynamin genes (Dyn1, Dyn2, Dyn3) are expressed in mammalian brain and produce more than 27 different dynamin proteins as a result of alternative splicing. Past studies have suggested that Dyn1 participates in specialized neuronal(More)
The dynamin family of large GTPases has been implicated in the formation of nascent vesicles in both the endocytic and secretory pathways. It is believed that dynamin interacts with a variety of cellular proteins to constrict membranes. The actin cytoskeleton has also been implicated in altering membrane shape and form during cell migration, endocytosis,(More)
The actin cytoskeleton is believed to contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated pits, although the specific components that connect actin filaments with the endocytic machinery are unclear. Cortactin is an F-actin-associated protein, localizes within membrane ruffles in cultured cells, and is a direct binding partner of the large GTPase dynamin. This(More)
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in the affective response to noxious stimuli. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The present study demonstrated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the ACC plays a crucial role in pain-related negative emotion. Intraplantar formalin injection produced(More)
The large GTPase dynamin is a mechanoenzyme that participates in the scission of nascent vesicles from the plasma membrane. Recently, dynamin has been demonstrated to associate with the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells by morphological and biochemical methods. Additional studies using a well characterized, cell-free assay have supported these findings by(More)
Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that has recently been implicated in endocytosis. It binds directly to dynamin-2 (Dyn2), a large GTPase that mediates the formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane and the Golgi. Here we show that cortactin associates with the Golgi to regulate the actin- and Dyn2-dependent transport of cargo. Cortactin antibodies(More)
The apparent resistance of a finite-thickness layer measured with a four-electrode plunge probe depends on the electrode insertion depth, electrode spacing, and layer thickness, as well as the resistivity ratio of an underlying layer. A physical model consisting of air, a saline solution layer, and an agar layer simulates the real situation of resistivity(More)
—This paper proposes a novel Integrated Oversampling (INOS) method that can handle highly imbalanced time series classification. We introduce an enhanced structure preserving oversampling (ESPO) technique and synergistically combine it with interpolation-based oversampling. ESPO is used to generate a large percentage of the synthetic minority samples based(More)
This paper presents an experimental technique to measure the directional thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials. A heated thermistor heats the sample and a sensing thermistor placed about 2.5 mm away measures the temperature rise due the heating pulse at the heated thermistor. An empirical relation between the power delivered by the first(More)