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GATA6 belongs to a family of zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in transducing nuclear events that regulate cellular differentiation and embryonic morphogenesis in vertebrate species. To examine the function of GATA6 during embryonic development, gene targeting was used to generate GATA6-deficient (GATA6(-/-)) ES cells and mice(More)
The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms of H5N1 dispersal, including the potential role of migratory birds as carriers. Although wild birds have been found dead during H5N1 outbreaks, evidence suggests that others have survived natural infections, and recent(More)
The role of migratory birds in the movement of the highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza H5N1 remains a subject of debate. Testing hypotheses regarding intercontinental movement of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses will help evaluate the potential that wild birds could carry Asian-origin strains of HP avian influenza to North America during(More)
SM22 alpha is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle-containing tissues of adult animals and is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate SMC-specific gene expression, we have isolated and structurally characterized the murine SM22 alpha gene. SM22 alpha is a 6.2-kilobase(More)
Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian-North(More)
Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank.(More)
Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in the development of several mesodermally derived cell lineages. In the studies described in this report, we have isolated and functionally characterized the murine GATA-6 cDNA and protein and defined the temporal and spatial patterns of GATA-6 gene expression during(More)
GATA-4 is one of the earliest developmental markers of the precardiac mesoderm, heart, and gut and has been shown to activate regulatory elements controlling transcription of genes encoding cardiac-specific proteins. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional activity of the GATA-4 protein, structure-function analyses were(More)
A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins(More)
Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.