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GATA6 belongs to a family of zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in transducing nuclear events that regulate cellular differentiation and embryonic morphogenesis in vertebrate species. To examine the function of GATA6 during embryonic development, gene targeting was used to generate GATA6-deficient (GATA6(-/-)) ES cells and mice(More)
SM22 alpha is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle-containing tissues of adult animals and is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate SMC-specific gene expression, we have isolated and structurally characterized the murine SM22 alpha gene. SM22 alpha is a 6.2-kilobase(More)
Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in the development of several mesodermally derived cell lineages. In the studies described in this report, we have isolated and functionally characterized the murine GATA-6 cDNA and protein and defined the temporal and spatial patterns of GATA-6 gene expression during(More)
Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors regulate critical steps of cellular differentiation during vertebrate development. In the studies described in this report, we have isolated and functionally characterized the murine GATA-5 cDNA and protein and defined the temporal and spatial pattern of GATA-5 gene expression during mammalian(More)
GATA-4 is one of the earliest developmental markers of the precardiac mesoderm, heart, and gut and has been shown to activate regulatory elements controlling transcription of genes encoding cardiac-specific proteins. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional activity of the GATA-4 protein, structure-function analyses were(More)
Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes are activated either by duplicative (DA) transposition of the gene to a pre-activated expression site or by nonduplicative (NDA) activation of a previously silent telomeric gene. We have obtained a recombinant clone spanning the 5' barren region of the expression linked copy of the duplicated VSG(More)
Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank.(More)
Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian-North(More)
BACKGROUND Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris(More)
BACKGROUND The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms of H5N1 dispersal, including the potential role of migratory birds as carriers. Although wild birds have been found dead during H5N1 outbreaks, evidence suggests that others have survived natural infections,(More)