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BACKGROUND The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms of H5N1 dispersal, including the potential role of migratory birds as carriers. Although wild birds have been found dead during H5N1 outbreaks, evidence suggests that others have survived natural infections,(More)
Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes are activated either by duplicative (DA) transposition of the gene to a pre-activated expression site or by nonduplicative (NDA) activation of a previously silent telomeric gene. We have obtained a recombinant clone spanning the 5' barren region of the expression linked copy of the duplicated VSG(More)
BACKGROUND Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris(More)
The SAP family transcription factor myocardin functionally synergizes with serum response factor (SRF) and plays an important role in cardiac development. To determine the function of myocardin in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage, we mapped the pattern of myocardin gene expression and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional activity(More)
UNLABELLED From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These(More)
Spi-B and PU.1 are hematopoietic-specific transcription factors that constitute a subfamily of the Ets family of DNA-binding proteins. Here we show that contrary to previous reports, PU.1 and Spi-B have very different expression patterns. PU.1 is expressed at high levels in B cells, mast cells, megakaryocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and immature(More)
Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.
Although continental populations of avian influenza viruses are genetically distinct, transcontinental reassortment in low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses has been detected in migratory birds. Thus, genomic analyses of LPAI viruses could serve as an approach to prioritize species and regions targeted by North American surveillance activities for(More)
Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often(More)
Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American(More)