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GATA6 belongs to a family of zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in transducing nuclear events that regulate cellular differentiation and embryonic morphogenesis in vertebrate species. To examine the function of GATA6 during embryonic development, gene targeting was used to generate GATA6-deficient (GATA6(-/-)) ES cells and mice(More)
SM22 alpha is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle-containing tissues of adult animals and is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate SMC-specific gene expression, we have isolated and structurally characterized the murine SM22 alpha gene. SM22 alpha is a 6.2-kilobase(More)
Wild-bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low-pathogenicity H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 H5N1 viruses and an additional 38 North American(More)
Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors regulate critical steps of cellular differentiation during vertebrate development. In the studies described in this report, we have isolated and functionally characterized the murine GATA-5 cDNA and protein and defined the temporal and spatial pattern of GATA-5 gene expression during mammalian(More)
The role of migratory birds in the movement of the highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza H5N1 remains a subject of debate. Testing hypotheses regarding intercontinental movement of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses will help evaluate the potential that wild birds could carry Asian-origin strains of HP avian influenza to North America during(More)
Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in the development of several mesodermally derived cell lineages. In the studies described in this report, we have isolated and functionally characterized the murine GATA-6 cDNA and protein and defined the temporal and spatial patterns of GATA-6 gene expression during(More)
Calponin-h1 is a 34-kDa myofibrillar thin filament, actin-binding protein that is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in adult animals. To examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate SMC-specific gene expression, we have examined the temporal, spatial, and cell cycle-regulated patterns of expression of calponin-h1 gene expression and(More)
The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms of H5N1 dispersal, including the potential role of migratory birds as carriers. Although wild birds have been found dead during H5N1 outbreaks, evidence suggests that others have survived natural infections, and recent(More)
Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes are activated either by duplicative (DA) transposition of the gene to a pre-activated expression site or by nonduplicative (NDA) activation of a previously silent telomeric gene. We have obtained a recombinant clone spanning the 5' barren region of the expression linked copy of the duplicated VSG(More)
A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins(More)