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Pediatric neuroimaging studies 1–5 , up to now exclusively cross sectional , identify linear decreases in cortical gray matter and increases in white matter across ages 4 to 20. In this large-scale longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study, we confirmed linear increases in white matter, but demonstrated nonlinear changes in cortical gray matter, with a(More)
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
1. Interest in the morphologic development of the corpus callosum (CC) during childhood and adolescence stems from adolescent changes in cognitive functions subserved by the CC, reports of CC anomalies for a wide variety of childhood neuropsychiatric illnesses, and controversy regarding sexual dimorphism. 2. Characterization of the normal developmental(More)
Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels play a central role in controlling neurotransmitter release at the synapse. They can be inhibited by certain G-protein-coupled receptors, acting by a pathway intrinsic to the membrane. Here we show that this inhibition results from a direct interaction between the G-protein betagamma complex and the pore-forming alpha1(More)
PX domains are found in a variety of proteins that associate with cell membranes, but their molecular function has remained obscure. We show here that the PX domains in p47phox and p40phox subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase bind to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P(2)) and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P), respectively.(More)
We report the development of a pseudorabies virus that can be used for retrograde tracing from selected neurons. This virus encodes a green fluorescent protein marker and replicates only in neurons that express the Cre recombinase and in neurons in synaptic contact with the originally infected cells. The virus was injected into the arcuate nucleus of mice(More)
Identification of antigenic sites on proteins is of vital importance for developing synthetic peptide vaccines, immunodiagnostic tests and antibody production. Currently, most of the prediction algorithms rely on amino acid propensity scales using a sliding window approach. These methods are oversimplified and yield poor predicted results in practice. In(More)
The beta subunit of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel is a cytoplasmic protein that interacts directly with an alpha1 subunit, thereby modulating the biophysical properties of the channel. Herein, we demonstrate that the alpha1B subunit of the N-type Ca2+ channel associates with several different beta subunits. Polyclonal antibodies specific for three(More)
OBJECTIVE Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows neurosurgeons to interactively perform surgery using MRI guidance. High-field strength (1.5-T) imaging permits exceptional observation of intracranial and spinal pathological features. The development of this technology and its application to a variety of neurosurgical procedures are(More)
Intravenous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) prepared from adult bone marrow reduces infarction size and ameliorates functional deficits in rat cerebral ischaemia models. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is angiogenic to impaired non-neural tissue. To test the hypothesis that PlGF contributes to the therapeutic benefits of MSC delivery in cerebral(More)