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Genetic methods, especially segregation and linkage analysis and supplementary tests on identity by descent and phenotype distributions, help to clarify the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). They reveal two determinants, one tightly linked to DR2 haplotypes in the HLA system, the other unlinked, which interact to simulate loose linkage.
Bacillus subtilis XF-1 has been used as a biocontrol agent of clubroot disease of crucifers infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate pathogen. In order to maximize the growth inhibition of the pathogen, random mutagenesis using N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine was applied to strain XF-1. The efficacy of 226 selected mutants was assessed against(More)
The genus Pythium, with slightly over 280 described species, has been classified traditionally with other filamentous, coenocytic, sporangia-producing fungi as “Phycomyetes”. However, with recent advances in chemical, ultrastructural and molecular studies, Pythium spp. are now considered as “fungus-like organisms” or “pseudo-fungi” and are placed in the(More)
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid and obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. It causes clubroot disease of cruciferous crops by producing resting spores that can survive in the soil for more than ten years. Although up to date there is no effective chemical control but now a strain of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis(More)
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