Interpretive Summary Livestock grazing has damaged approximately 80% of stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. Although these areas compose only 0.5-1.0% of the overall landscape, a disproportionately large percentage (~70-80%) of all desert, shrub, and grassland plants and animals depend on them. The introduction of livestock into… (More)
Human alteration of the nitrogen (N) cycle has produced benefits for health and well-being, but excess N has altered many ecosystems and degraded air and water quality. US regulations mandate protection of the environment in terms that directly connect to ecosystem services. Here, we review the science quantifying effects of N on key ecosystem services, and… (More)
CONCLUSION This p:aper extends the known area of pre-European fires and the dating of a major, fire elucidates some aspects of the forest dynamics of the Northern Tararuas. Although only the Tiritea catchment has been studied in detail, this same fire, or another in the sa'me period, apparently swept much of the Ot,mgaue, Kahuterawa and Tokomaru… (More)
Nest site selection in arboreal, domatia-dwelling ants, particularly those coexisting on a single host plant, is little understood. To examine this phenomenon we studied the African savannah tree Vachellia erioloba, which hosts ants in swollen-thorn domatia. We found four ant species from different genera (Cataulacus intrudens, Tapinoma subtile, Tetraponera… (More)
Compounds targeting phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) signaling are being investigated in multiple clinical settings, but drug resistance may reduce their benefit. Compound rechallenge after drug holidays can overcome such resistance, yet little is known about the impact of drug holidays on cell biochemistry. We found… (More)
(1969). A developmental study of information processing within the first three years of life: Response decrement to a redundant signal.