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Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted extracellular phosphoprotein involved in diverse biologic functions, including inflammation, cell migration, and antiapoptotic processes. Here we investigate the neuroprotective potential of OPN to reduce cell death using both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemia. We show that incubation of cortical neuron cultures with(More)
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is an intracellular protein involved in innate immunity and linked to chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. Further characterization of the full spectrum of proteins capable of binding to NOD2 may provide new insights into its normal functioning as well as the mechanisms by which mutated forms cause(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection that lead to ischaemic tolerance are incompletely understood. Identification of genes involved in the process would provide insight into cell survival and therapeutic approaches for stroke. We developed a mouse model of neuroprotection in stroke and did gene expression profiling to identify potential(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning provides neuroprotection against subsequent cerebral ischemic injury. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is protective in LPS-induced preconditioning yet exacerbates neuronal injury in ischemia. Here, we define dual roles of TNFalpha in LPS-induced ischemic tolerance in a murine model of stroke and in primary(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tolerance to ischemic brain injury is induced by several preconditioning stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A small dose of LPS given systemically confers ischemic protection in the brain, a process that appears to involve activation of an inflammatory response before ischemia. We postulated that LPS preconditioning(More)
Uveitis, which occurs in association with systemic immunological diseases, presents a considerable medical challenge because of incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. The signals that initiate T cells to target the eye, which may be of infectious or noninfectious origin, are poorly understood. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) develops in(More)
PURPOSE Nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) plays an important role in innate immunity to sense muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a component of bacterial cell walls. Notably, NOD2 is linked to eye inflammation because mutations in NOD2 cause a granulomatous type of uveitis called Blau syndrome. A mouse model of NOD2-dependent ocular inflammation was employed(More)
In vertebrates, the innate and adaptive immune systems have evolved seamlessly to protect the host by rapidly responding to danger signals, eliminating pathogens and creating immunological memory as well as immunological tolerance to self. The innate immune system harnesses receptors that recognize conserved pathogen patterns and alongside the more specific(More)
BACKGROUND Uveitis, or inflammatory eye disease, is a common extra-articular manifestation of many systemic autoinflammatory diseases involving the joints. Anakinra (recombinant interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra)) is an effective therapy in several arthritic diseases; yet, few studies have investigated the extent to which IL-1 signalling or IL-1Ra(More)