Holly E. Caravan

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The social insect soldier is perhaps the most widely known caste, because it often exhibits spectacular weapons, such as highly enlarged jaws or reinforced appendages, which are used to defend the colony against enemies ranging in size from wasps to anteaters. We examined the function of the enlarged forelimbs of soldiers (both male and female) of the(More)
Seven species of Australian gall-inducing thrips have a helping caste (soldiers). This caste is morphologically distinct and has been shown to use these physical differences to be a more effective fighting force. Here we investigate behavioral differences between castes of Kladothrips intermedius (Bagnall) when faced with the destruction of the gall; that(More)
Within the gall-inducing thrips of Australia, genus Kladothrips, is a single origin of a soldier caste. A subsequent radiation has led to at least seven social species, and two species that are likely to have independently lost the soldier caste. Both losses of soldiers are connected to a shift in the insects’ host plant. A third inferred host shift is(More)
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