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Ataxia telangiectasia (ATM) mutated and Artemis, the proteins defective in ataxia telangiectasia and a class of Radiosensitive-Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (RS-SCID), respectively, function in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which arise in heterochromatic DNA (HC-DSBs) following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we examine(More)
Heterochromatin (HC) poses a barrier to γH2AX focus expansion and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the latter being relieved by ATM-dependent KAP-1 phosphorylation. Using high-resolution imaging, we show here that the HC superstructure markedly restricts ATM signaling to cell cycle checkpoint proteins. The impact of HC is greater than anticipated from(More)
Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by(More)
UNLABELLED Recently, the rationale for combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy has come to light, but our understanding of the immune response during MAPK pathway inhibitor treatment is limited. We discovered that the immune microenvironment can act as a source of resistance to MAPK pathway-targeted therapy, and moreover during treatment this source(More)
Once melanomas have progressed with acquired resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-targeted therapy, mutational heterogeneity presents a major challenge. We therefore examined the therapy phase before acquired resistance had developed and discovered the melanoma survival oncogene MITF as a driver of an early non-mutational and reversible(More)
Heavy particle irradiation produces complex DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can arise from primary ionisation events within the particle trajectory. Additionally, secondary electrons, termed delta-electrons, which have a range of distributions can create low linear energy transfer (LET) damage within but also distant from the track. DNA damage by(More)
Approaches to prolong responses to BRAF targeting drugs in melanoma patients are challenged by phenotype heterogeneity. Melanomas of a "MITF-high" phenotype usually respond well to BRAF inhibitor therapy, but these melanomas also contain subpopulations of the de novo resistance "AXL-high" phenotype. > 50% of melanomas progress with enriched "AXL-high"(More)
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