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Fragile X Syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. It is also known for having a substantial behavioral morbidity, including autistic features. In humans, Fragile X Syndrome is almost always caused by inactivation of the X-linked FMR1 gene. A single knockout mouse model, fmr1-tm1Cgr, exists. In this report we further characterize(More)
The present study used microdialysis techniques to compare acetylcholine release in the frontoparietal cortex of rats performing in a task requiring sustained attention with that of rats performing in two control procedures. The two control procedures were a fixed-interval 9-s schedule of reinforcement assessing primarily the effects of operant responding(More)
Milk promotes activity in the kappa opioid system of the rat fetus and reduced responsiveness in a behavioral bioassay of cutaneous sensitivity. In this study, E20 rat fetuses were presented with an artificial nipple (CS) and intraoral infusions of milk (US) to condition opioid activity. Paired presentations of the CS and US resulted in conditioned changes(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, accompanied by synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Antibody-based immunotherapy against Aβ to trigger its clearance or mitigate its neurotoxicity has so far been unsuccessful. Here we report the generation of aducanumab, a(More)
In vivo microdialysis was used to determine the necessity of neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) for task-induced increases in cortical acetylcholine (ACh) efflux. Rats were trained in a behavioral task in which they were required to perform a defined number of licks of a citric acid solution in order to gain access to a palatable,(More)
The present experiments tested the hypothesis that the amphetamine-induced increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens represents a necessary and sufficient component of the ability of systemically administered amphetamine to stimulate cortical acetylcholine release. The effects of systemic or intra-accumbens administration of amphetamine on(More)
Three experiments were conducted to assess the plasticity of ethanol-mediated conditioned aversions to a tactile stimulus in infant rats. Ten- and 11-day-old rats first acquired an aversion to a texture, by virtue of its pairing with alcohol-induced intoxication. This first conditioning phase was followed by an associative devaluation procedure, a second(More)
Systemic administration of amphetamine results in increases in the release of acetylcholine in the cortex. Basal forebrain mediation of this effect was examined in three experiments using microdialysis in freely-moving rats. Experiment 1 examined whether dopamine receptor activity within the basal forebrain was necessary for amphetamine-induced increase in(More)
Stimuli normally encountered during suckling after birth--the nipple and milk--elicit behavioral responses from fat fetuses on E20. A series of experiments demonstrated that milk, unlike other chemosensory stimuli, consistently evoked mouthing activity during the 15 s after presentation. Unlike other perioral tactile stimuli, an artificial nipple evoked(More)
Previous research has demonstrated an interaction between the effects of amphetamine and exposure to a novel environment on the activity of neurons in the nucleus accumbens. Given a model in which these accumbens efferents gate the excitability of basal forebrain cholinergic corticopetal neurons, the administration of intra-accumbens amphetamine was(More)