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The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is central to intracellular Ca 2+ regulation during excitation–contraction (E-C) coupling in mammalian cardiac tissue. The importance of the SR to E-C coupling in lower vertebrates is less certain. This uncertainty can be attributed, in part, to the temperature-dependency of the SR Ca 2+-release channel and to interspecific(More)
Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac(More)
The zebrafish is widely used for human related disease studies. Surprisingly, there is no information about the electrical activity of single myocytes freshly isolated from adult zebrafish ventricle. In this study, we present an enzymatic method to isolate ventricular myocytes from zebrafish heart that yield a large number of calcium tolerant cells.(More)
CTLA-4 is expressed on T cells after activation and shares homology with the CD28 costimulatory receptor. In contrast to CD28, CTLA-4 is thought to be a negative regulator of T cell activation. Cross-linking of CTLA-4 during activation of peripheral T cells reduces IL-2 production and arrests T cells in G1. Much less is known about the function of CTLA-4 in(More)
Rainbow trout remain active in waters that seasonally change between 4°C and 20°C. To explore how these fish are able to maintain cardiac function over this temperature range we characterized changes in cardiac morphology, contractile function, and the expression of contractile proteins in trout following acclimation to 4°C (cold), 12°C (control), and 17°C(More)
Tunas are capable of exceptionally high maximum metabolic rates; such capability requires rapid delivery of oxygen and metabolic substrate to the tissues. This requirement is met, in part, by exceptionally high maximum cardiac outputs, opening the possibility that myocardial Ca(2+) delivery is enhanced in myocytes from tuna compared with those from other(More)
During vertebrate evolution there has been a shift in the way in which the heart varies cardiac output (the product of heart rate and stroke volume). While mammals, birds, and amphibians increase cardiac output through large increases in heart rate and only modest increases (approximately 30%) in stroke volume, fish and some reptiles use modest increases in(More)
Chronic pressure or volume overload can cause the vertebrate heart to remodel. The hearts of fish remodel in response to seasonal temperature change. Here we focus on the passive properties of the fish heart. Building upon our previous work on thermal-remodeling of the rainbow trout ventricle, we hypothesized that chronic cooling would initiate fibrotic(More)
Electrophysiological properties and molecular background of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac inward rectifier current (IK1) were examined. Ventricular myocytes of zebrafish have a robust (−6.7 ± 1.2 pA pF−1 at −120 mV) strongly rectifying and Ba2+-sensitive (IC50 = 3.8 μM) IK1. Transcripts of six Kir2 channels (drKir2.1a, drKir2.1b, drKir2.2a, drKir2.2b,(More)
Understanding the physiology of vertebrate thermal tolerance is critical for predicting how animals respond to climate change. Pacific bluefin tuna experience a wide range of ambient sea temperatures and occupy the largest geographical niche of all tunas. Their capacity to endure thermal challenge is due in part to enhanced expression and activity of key(More)