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Human bone marrow stromal cells are a multipotent population of cells capable of differentiating into a number of mesodermal lineages as well as supporting hematopoeisis. Their distinct protein and gene expression phenotype is well characterized in the literature. Human adipose tissue presents an alternative source of multipotent stromal cells. In this(More)
The differentiation and growth of adult stem cells within engineered tissue constructs are hypothesized to be influenced by cell-biomaterial interactions. In this study, we compared the chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived adult stem (hADAS) cells seeded in alginate and agarose hydrogels, and porous gelatin scaffolds (Surgifoam), as well as(More)
OBJECTIVE Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel that can be gated by tonicity (osmolarity) and mechanical stimuli. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, respond to their osmotic and mechanical environments; however, the molecular basis of this signal transduction is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to(More)
Mechanical loading of joints plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of articular cartilage. The mechanism(s) of chondrocyte mechanotransduction are not fully understood, but could provide important insights into new physical or pharmacologic therapies for joint diseases. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a(More)
Mutation or loss of collagen VI has been linked to a variety of musculoskeletal abnormalities, particularly muscular dystrophies, tissue ossification and/or fibrosis, and hip osteoarthritis. However, the role of collagen VI in bone and cartilage structure and function in the knee is unknown. In this study, we examined the role of collagen VI in the(More)
Diarthrodial joints are essential for load bearing and locomotion. Physiologically, articular cartilage sustains millions of cycles of mechanical loading. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, regulate their metabolic activities in response to mechanical loading. Pathological mechanical stress can lead to maladaptive cellular responses and subsequent(More)
Tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic approach that uses combinations of implanted cells, biomaterial scaffolds, and biologically active molecules to repair or regenerate damaged or diseased tissues. Many diverse and increasingly complex approaches are being developed to repair articular cartilage, with the underlying premise that cells introduced(More)
Diffusive transport of solutes is critical to the normal function of articular cartilage. The diffusion of macromolecules through cartilage may be affected by the local composition and structure, which vary with depth from the tissue surface. We hypothesized that the diffusion coefficient of uncharged molecules also varies with depth and molecular size. We(More)
Molecular transport in avascular collagenous tissues such as articular cartilage occurs primarily via diffusion. The presence of ordered structures in the extracellular matrix may influence the local transport of macromolecules, leading to anisotropic diffusion depending on the relative size of the molecule and that of extracellular matrix structures. Here(More)
The pericellular matrix (PCM) is a narrow region of tissue that completely surrounds chondrocytes in articular cartilage. Previous theoretical models of the "chondron" (the PCM with enclosed cells) suggest that the structure and properties of the PCM may significantly influence the mechanical environment of the chondrocyte. The objective of this study was(More)