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The life-threatening complications of sepsis in humans are elicited by infection with Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major biologically active agent of Gram-negative bacteria, was shown to mediate cellular activation by a member of the human Toll-like receptor family, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Here(More)
The agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces membrane lipoproteins possessing potent inflammatory properties linked to disease pathology. The recent association of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 with LPS responses prompted the examination of TLR involvement in lipoprotein signaling. The ability of human cell lines to respond to lipoproteins(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an essential role in signal transduction by Toll/IL-1 receptors (TIRs). Here, we report the crystal structures of the phosphorylated human IRAK-4 kinase domain in complex with a potent inhibitor and with staurosporine to 2.0 and 2.2 A, respectively. The(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) was first described as a signal transducer for interleukin-1 (IL-1) and has later been implicated in signal transduction of other members of the Toll/IL-1 receptor family. We now report the identification and characterization of a novel IRAK-like molecule. In contrast to the ubiquitously expressed IRAK and(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in host cells upon infection. LPS binds to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)- anchored membrane protein CD14, which lacks an intracellular signaling domain. Here we investigated the role of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as signal(More)
The Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor (TIR) family comprises two groups of transmembrane proteins, which share functional and structural properties. The members of the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) subfamily are characterized by three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. They form heterodimeric signaling receptor complexes consisting of receptor and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and members of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, share homologies in their cytoplasmic domains called Toll/IL-1R/plant R gene homology (TIR) domains. Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) is an important adapter in the signaling complex of the Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor family. Formation of the signaling IL-1 receptor complex results in the activation and hyperphosphorylation of IRAK-1, which leads to a pronounced shift of its apparent molecular mass in gel electrophoresis.(More)
Metastasis of primary tumors leads to a very poor prognosis for patients suffering from cancer. Although it is well established that not every tumor will eventually metastasize, it is less clear whether primary tumors acquire genetic alterations in a stochastic process at a late stage, which make them invasive, or whether genetic alterations acquired early(More)
IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that signals through a receptor complex of two different transmembrane chains to generate multiple cellular responses, including activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Here we show that MyD88, a previously described protein of unknown function, is recruited to the IL-1 receptor complex following IL-1(More)