Holger Wesche

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The life-threatening complications of sepsis in humans are elicited by infection with Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major biologically active agent of Gram-negative bacteria, was shown to mediate cellular activation by a member of the human Toll-like receptor family, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Here(More)
IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that signals through a receptor complex of two different transmembrane chains to generate multiple cellular responses, including activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Here we show that MyD88, a previously described protein of unknown function, is recruited to the IL-1 receptor complex following IL-1(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and members of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, share homologies in their cytoplasmic domains called Toll/IL-1R/plant R gene homology (TIR) domains. Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in host cells upon infection. LPS binds to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)- anchored membrane protein CD14, which lacks an intracellular signaling domain. Here we investigated the role of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as signal(More)
The agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces membrane lipoproteins possessing potent inflammatory properties linked to disease pathology. The recent association of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 with LPS responses prompted the examination of TLR involvement in lipoprotein signaling. The ability of human cell lines to respond to lipoproteins(More)
Toll/IL-1 receptor family members are central components of host defense mechanisms in a variety of species. One well conserved element in their signal transduction is Ser/Thr kinases, which couple early signaling events in a receptor complex at the plasma membrane to larger signalosomes in the cytosol. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has one member(More)
The Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor (TIR) family comprises two groups of transmembrane proteins, which share functional and structural properties. The members of the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) subfamily are characterized by three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. They form heterodimeric signaling receptor complexes consisting of receptor and(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) was first described as a signal transducer for interleukin-1 (IL-1) and has later been implicated in signal transduction of other members of the Toll/IL-1 receptor family. We now report the identification and characterization of a novel IRAK-like molecule. In contrast to the ubiquitously expressed IRAK and(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) is an important adapter in the signaling complex of the Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor family. Formation of the signaling IL-1 receptor complex results in the activation and hyperphosphorylation of IRAK-1, which leads to a pronounced shift of its apparent molecular mass in gel electrophoresis.(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an essential role in signal transduction by Toll/IL-1 receptors (TIRs). Here, we report the crystal structures of the phosphorylated human IRAK-4 kinase domain in complex with a potent inhibitor and with staurosporine to 2.0 and 2.2 A, respectively. The(More)