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Recently it was speculated that ultrafine particles may translocate from deposition sites in the lungs to systemic circulation. This could lead to accumulation and potentially adverse reactions in critical organs such as liver, heart, and even brain, consistent with the hypothesis that ultrafine insoluble particles may play a role in the onset of(More)
PURPOSE To provide the 4-week prevalence estimates of mental disorders in cancer populations. PATIENTS AND METHODS We enrolled adult patients with cancer from in- and outpatient care facilities, using a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer incidence in Germany. Patients who scored 9 or above on the Patient Health(More)
It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic(More)
Increased levels of particulate air pollution are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Some epidemiologic and toxicologic research suggests ultrafine particles (UFPs) (< 100 nm) to be more harmful per unit mass than larger particles. Our study was aimed at a quantitative comparison of acute adverse effects of(More)
OBJECTIVE To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in older people in Europe and North America. METHOD Studies that reported prevalence rates of mental disorders in older people from the general population were identified through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and reference lists for the period between January 2000 and(More)
High concentrations of airborne particles have been associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality, with indications of a specific toxicologic role for ultrafine particles (UFPs; particles < 0.1 microm). Within hours after the respiratory system is exposed to UFPs, the UFPs may appear in many compartments of the body, including the liver,(More)
The cardiovascular system is currently considered a target for particulate matter, especially for ultrafine particles. In addition to autonomic or cytokine mediated effects, the direct interaction of inhaled materials with the target tissue must be examined to understand the underlying mechanisms. In the first approach, pulmonary and systemic distribution(More)
The role of alveolar macrophages in the fate of ultrafine particles in the lung was investigated. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to ultrafine gold particles, generated by a spark generator, for 6 h at a concentration of 88 microg/m3 (4 x 10(6)/cm3, 16 nm modal mobility diameter). Up to 7 days, the animals were serially sacrificed, and lavaged cells and(More)
Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the lung to(More)
The role of macrophages in the clearance of particles with diameters less than 100 nm (ultrafine or nanoparticles) is not well established, although these particles deposit highly efficiently in peripheral lungs, where particle phagocytosis by macrophages is the primary clearance mechanism. To investigate the uptake of nanoparticles by lung phagocytes, we(More)