Holger Schulz

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Recently it was speculated that ultrafine particles may translocate from deposition sites in the lungs to systemic circulation. This could lead to accumulation and potentially adverse reactions in critical organs such as liver, heart, and even brain, consistent with the hypothesis that ultrafine insoluble particles may play a role in the onset of(More)
It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic(More)
Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We(More)
Increased levels of particulate air pollution are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Some epidemiologic and toxicologic research suggests ultrafine particles (UFPs) (< 100 nm) to be more harmful per unit mass than larger particles. Our study was aimed at a quantitative comparison of acute adverse effects of(More)
High concentrations of airborne particles have been associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality, with indications of a specific toxicologic role for ultrafine particles (UFPs; particles < 0.1 microm). Within hours after the respiratory system is exposed to UFPs, the UFPs may appear in many compartments of the body, including the liver,(More)
Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the lung to(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate response rate, response duration, overall survival (OS), and toxicity in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) after systemic and intraventricular chemotherapy with deferred radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS From September 1995 to July 2001, 65 consecutive patients with PCNSL (median age, 62 years) were enrolled onto a pilot and phase II study(More)
Quality of life (QoL) is discussed as an additional outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, few questionnaires assessing disease specific QoL in MS have been published. On the basis of the literature and interviews with clinicians and MS patients, we have developed a disease specific QoL instrument and validated it in a broad range of patients(More)
PURPOSE To provide the 4-week prevalence estimates of mental disorders in cancer populations. PATIENTS AND METHODS We enrolled adult patients with cancer from in- and outpatient care facilities, using a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer incidence in Germany. Patients who scored 9 or above on the Patient Health(More)
The role of macrophages in the clearance of particles with diameters less than 100 nm (ultrafine or nanoparticles) is not well established, although these particles deposit highly efficiently in peripheral lungs, where particle phagocytosis by macrophages is the primary clearance mechanism. To investigate the uptake of nanoparticles by lung phagocytes, we(More)