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Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) regulate the activity of small guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins to control cellular functions. In general, GEFs turn on signaling by catalyzing the exchange from G-protein-bound GDP to GTP, whereas GAPs terminate signaling by inducing GTP hydrolysis. GEFs and GAPs are(More)
Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading(More)
To remodel endothelial cell-cell adhesion, inflammatory cytokine- and angiogenic growth factor-induced signals impinge on the vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) complex, the central component of endothelial adherens junctions. This study demonstrates that junction remodeling takes place at a molecularly and phenotypically distinct subset of(More)
Stimulation of phosphoinositide-hydrolysing phospholipase C (PLC) generating inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate is a major calcium signalling pathway used by a wide variety of membrane receptors, activating distinct PLC-beta or PLC-gamma isoforms. Here we report a new PLC and calcium signalling pathway that is triggered by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and mediated by a(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) stimulation results in the activation of G(s)alpha protein-coupled receptors to regulate neuronal differentiation in a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent manner. These pathways involve protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent processes, but a growing body of evidence indicates that cAMP also regulates cellular(More)
Fifty years ago, cyclic AMP was discovered as a second messenger of hormone action, heralding the age of signal transduction. Many cellular processes were found to be regulated by cAMP and the related cyclic GMP. Cyclic nucleotides function by binding to and activating their effectors - protein kinase A, protein kinase G, cyclic-nucleotide-regulated ion(More)
Epac1 (cAMP-GEFI) and Epac2 (cAMP-GEFII) are closely related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the small GTPase Rap1, which are directly regulated by cAMP. Here we show that both GEFs efficiently activate Rap2 as well. A third member of the family, Repac (GFR), which lacks the cAMP dependent regulatory sequences, is a constitutive activator of(More)
Epac proteins (exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP) are guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) for the small GTP-binding proteins Rap1 and Rap2 that are directly regulated by the second messenger cyclic AMP and function in the control of diverse cellular processes, including cell adhesion and insulin secretion. Here we report the(More)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a universal second messenger that, in eukaryotes, was believed to act only on cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channels. Recently, guanine nucleotide exchange factors specific for the small GTP-binding proteins Rap1 and Rap2 (Epacs) were described, which are also activated(More)
Epac1 and its effector Rap1 are important mediators of cAMP induced tightening of endothelial junctions and consequential increased barrier function. We have investigated the involvement of Rap1 signalling in basal, unstimulated, barrier function of a confluent monolayer of HUVEC using real time Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing. Depletion of Rap1,(More)