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To evaluate the value of single and nested PCRs for diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in a variety of respiratorily distressed patient groups, 574 respiratory samples from 334 patients (89 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-positive patients, 61 transplant recipients, 66 malignancy patients, 34 otherwise immunosuppressed patients, and 84(More)
Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium is a principal cause of human enterocolitis. For unknown reasons, in mice serovar Typhimurium does not provoke intestinal inflammation but rather targets the gut-associated lymphatic tissues and causes a systemic typhoid-like infection. The lack of a suitable murine model has limited the analysis of the(More)
In addition to their bridging function between innate and adaptive immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) may also contribute to primary resistance against infection. Here we analyzed the role of DCs during infection with Listeria monocytogenes by performing systemic in vivo depletion of these cells. We showed that CD8alpha(+) DCs were crucial for L. monocytogenes(More)
Unlike non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, S. enterica serotype Typhi does not elicit neutrophilic infiltrates in the human intestinal mucosa. The Vi capsule-encoding tviABCDEvexABCDE operon (viaB locus) is a S. Typhi-specific DNA region preventing production of interleukin (IL)-8 during infection of intestinal epithelial cells. We elucidated the mechanism(More)
Salmonella spp. possess a conserved type III secretion system encoded within the pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1; centisome 63), which mediates translocation of effector proteins into the host cell cytosol to trigger responses such as bacterial internalization. Several translocated effector proteins are encoded in other regions of the Salmonella chromosome. It(More)
Salmonella typhimurium employs the specialized type III secretion system encoded in pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) to translocate effector proteins into host cells and to modulate host cell signal transduction. The SPI1 type III system and the effector proteins are conserved among all salmonellae and are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer.(More)
Forty-five consecutive patients with various gastrointestinal disorders were identified as having Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli infections. This was shown by the cytotoxic effect of stool extracts in Vero cell cultures which was neutralizable by antibodies to SLTs and by isolation of E. coli that hybridized with DNA probes complementary(More)
To investigate the length of time that Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 is excreted after the onset of diarrhea, 456 serial stool specimens were obtained from 53 children. E. coli O157 cells were identified by the use of DNA probes followed by agglutination with a specific antiserum. Specimens were collected until three consecutive stool(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are suboptimally sensitive to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) in young children. In this study we compared Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-stimulated IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) responses in children with active TB and LTBI to responses from children with(More)
AIM To compare the results of culture and epsilometer test with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of Helicobacter pylori and the presence of clarithromycin-susceptible and clarithromycin-resistant strains in antral biopsies from children. METHODS Antral biopsies from 149 unselected children were investigated prospectively; 15 had(More)