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The characteristics of "climbing" in the sense of locomotion or posture on three-dimensional substrates are discussed from a biomechanical viewpoint. For this purpose, the mechanical conditions of the most widely spread modes of locomotion or gaits used in arboreal surroundings are reviewed. This allows precise identification of morphological(More)
The mechanical laws which make possible several characteristic and well-known modes of primate locomotion are reviewed. Biological requirements are fulfilled in small and in large primates by utilizing different mechanical principles. On the basis of the mechanics, special morphological traits can be identified which are advantageous for performing these(More)
The storage and recovery of elastic strain energy in the musculoskeletal systems of locomoting animals has been extensively studied, yet the external environment represents a second potentially useful energy store that has often been neglected. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of orangutans to usefully recover energy from swaying trees to(More)
The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase(More)
On the basis of theoretical biomechanics and of experiments, we investigated the mechanical requirements to which the body of a bipedally walking primate is subject, and the possibilities to meet these requirements with a minimum amount of energy. The least energy-consuming adaptation is clearly a body shape favourable for the preferred locomotion. Some(More)
For neuronavigation in neuroendoscopy conventional navigation systems cannot exclude tissue movements caused by loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Open MRI can serve as a real-time navigation system if special conditions of endoscopic instruments and equipment are followed. We adapted an endoscopic system to the MRI and installed a miniaturized laser(More)
The measurement of strains in real skulls is an inductive method that yields information about the stresses occurring in the a priori existing shape. In contrast, the approach taken here to determine the relationship between skull function and skull shape applies Wolff's law through a deductive technique of structure synthesis. This article describes the(More)
Morphology and biomechanics are linked by causal morphogenesis ('Wolff's law') and the interplay of mutations and selection (Darwin's 'survival of the fittest'). Thus shape-based selective pressures can be determined. In both cases we need to know which biomechanical factors lead to skeletal adaptation, and which ones exert selective pressures on body(More)
The obliquity of the femoral diaphysis accounts for the valgus position of the human knee joint and reduces bending moments in the frontal plane. A high angle of obliquity is considered a hallmark of hominid bipedality, but its functional importance has rarely been identified correctly. A biostatic investigation of the knee joint in various realistic(More)
In order to determine the extent to which the shape of the synapsid skull is adapted for resisting the mechanical loads to which it is subjected, block- or simple plate-shaped finite-element models were constructed and loaded with external muscle and bite forces in locations estimated to resemble points of application of these forces. These 2D or 3D(More)