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PERIOD proteins are central components of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian clocks. The crystal structure of a Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) fragment comprising two PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B) and two additional C-terminal alpha-helices (alphaE and alphaF) has revealed a homodimer mediated by intermolecular interactions of PAS-A with(More)
Endosomes and endosomal vesicles (EVs) rapidly move along cytoskeletal filaments allowing them to exchange proteins and lipids between different endosomal compartments, lysosomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the plasma membrane. The precise mechanisms that connect membrane traffic between the TGN and perinuclear endosomal compartments with(More)
The protein products of three adjacent P22 genes, 4, 10 and 26, are required for the stabilization of DNA newly packaged into P22 phage capsids. We have isolated unstable DNA containing capsids from cells infected with mutants defective in these genes. All three classes could be converted into mature phage in vitro, confirming that they represent(More)
Viral attachment to specific host receptors is the first step in viral infection and serves an essential function in the selection of target cells. Mammalian reoviruses are highly useful experimental models for studies of viral pathogenesis and show promise as vectors for oncolytics and vaccines. Reoviruses engage cells by binding to carbohydrates and the(More)
The three PERIOD homologues mPER1, mPER2, and mPER3 constitute central components of the mammalian circadian clock. They contain two PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B), which mediate homo- and heterodimeric mPER-mPER interactions as well as interactions with transcription factors and kinases. Here we present crystal structures of PAS domain(More)
The bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of sialic acids, the terminal sugars of glycoconjugates associated with a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as cell adhesion, development, inflammation and cancer. In this study, we characterized rat GNE by(More)
Liraglutide is an acylated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that binds to serum albumin in vivo and is approved for once-daily treatment of diabetes as well as obesity. The aim of the present studies was to design a once weekly GLP-1 analogue by increasing albumin affinity and secure full stability against metabolic degradation. The fatty acid(More)
Insulin degludec, an engineered acylated insulin, was recently reported to form a soluble depot after subcutaneous injection with a subsequent slow release of insulin and an ultralong glucose-lowering effect in excess of 40 h in humans. We describe the structure, ligand binding properties, and self-assemblies of insulin degludec using orthogonal structural(More)
The activation/inactivation cycle of STAT transcription factors entails their transition between different dimer conformations. Unphosphorylated STATs can dimerize in an antiparallel conformation via extended interfaces of the globular N-domains, whereas STAT activation triggers a parallel dimer conformation with mutual phosphortyrosine:SH2 domain(More)