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In mammals, circadian oscillators reside not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, which harbors the central pacemaker, but also in most peripheral tissues. Here, we show that the glucocorticoid hormone analog dexamethasone induces circadian gene expression in cultured rat-1 fibroblasts and transiently changes the phase of circadian gene(More)
Glucocorticoids are secreted from the adrenal gland in very high amounts after stress. In the brain, these stress hormones potently modulate ionic currents, monoaminergic transmission, synaptic plasticity and cellular viability, most notably in the hippocampus where corticosteroid receptors are highly enriched. Here we show that at least some of these(More)
Corticosteroid action in the brain is mediated by the mineralocorticoid (MR) and the glucocorticoid (GR) receptor. Disturbances in MR- and GR-mediated effects are thought to impair cognition, behavior, and endocrine control. To assess the function of the limbic MR in these processes, we inactivated the MR gene in the forebrain of the mouse using the(More)
Transcriptional regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for survival. Since the GR can influence transcription both through DNA-binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms, we attempted to assess their relative importance in vivo. In order to separate these modes of action, we introduced the point mutation A458T into the GR by gene(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in the treatment of allergic skin conditions despite having numerous side effects. Here we use Cre/loxP-engineered tissue- and cell-specific and function-selective GC receptor (GR) mutant mice to identify responsive cell types and molecular mechanisms underlying the antiinflammatory activity of GCs in contact(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones which regulate a variety of essential biological functions. The profound anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity of synthetic GCs, combined with their power to induce lymphocyte apoptosis place them among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. Endogenous GCs also exert a wide range of(More)
To dissect the effects of corticosteroids mediated by the mineralocorticoid (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the central nervous system, we compared MR-/- mice, whose salt loss syndrome was corrected by exogenous NaCI administration, with GR-/- mice having a brain-specific disruption of the GR gene generated by the Cre/loxP-recombination system.(More)
The glucocorticoid receptor is an ubiquitously expressed transcription factor involved in the regulation of many different physiological processes. Activated by glucocorticoids the receptor regulates transcription positively or negatively either by direct binding to DNA or by protein protein interactions. In order to define the role of the receptor during(More)
Activation of central glucocorticoid receptors caused by the stress that is associated with a learning task facilitates storage of the acquired information. The molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is entirely unknown. Glucocorticoid receptors can influence transcription both through DNA binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To assess the(More)
High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying mechanisms remain debatable. In this study, we investigated the impact of GC administration on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis using different GC receptor (GR)-deficient mutants. Heterozygous GR knockout mice were less sensitive to(More)