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Estimates of the relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones vary considerably among normal trichromats and depend significantly on the nature of the experimental method employed. Here we estimate L/M cone ratios in a population of normal observers, using three psychophysical tasks-detection thresholds for(More)
To analyze the human red, green, and red-green hybrid cone pigments in vivo, we studied 41 male dichromats, each of whose X chromosome carries only a single visual pigment gene (single-gene dichromats). This simplified arrangement avoids the difficulties of complex opsin gene arrays and overlapping cone spectral sensitivities present in trichromats and of(More)
Estimates of the density spectrum of the macular pigment (Wyszecki G, Stiles WS. Color Science: Concepts and Methods. Quantitative Data and Formulas. 1st ed. New York: Wiley, 1967); (Vos JJ. Literature review of human macular absorption in the visible and its consequences for the cone receptor primaries. Institute for Perception. Soesterberg, The(More)
The hypothesis that dichromatic behavior on a clinical anomaloscope can be explained by the complement and arrangement of the long- (L) and middle-wavelength (M) pigment genes was tested. It was predicted that dichromacy is associated with an X-chromosome pigment gene array capable of producing only a single functional pigment type. The simplest case of(More)
Photopigment optical density (OD) of middle-(M) and long-(L) wavelength-sensitive cones was determined to evaluate the hypothesis that reductions in the amount of photopigment are responsible for age-dependent sensitivity losses of the human cone pathways. Flicker thresholds were measured at the peak and tail of the photoreceptor's absorption spectrum as a(More)
The chromatic content (saturation) of monochromatic stimuli (480, 505, 577, and 650 nm) was scaled as a function of field size at three different retinal locations by 58 observers ranging from 18 to 83 yr of age. The different retinal locations (6 deg nasal, 2.5 deg inferior and 6 deg temporal eccentricity) were chosen according to anatomical studies(More)
Using heterochromatic flicker photometry, we have measured the corneal spectral sensitivities of the X-chromosome-linked photopigments in 40 dichromats, 37 of whom have a single opsin gene in their tandem array. The photopigments encoded by their genes include: the alanine variant of the normal middle-wavelength sensitive photopigment, M(A180); the alanine(More)
PURPOSE To visualize by direct fluorescent in situ hybridization the entire human visual pigment gene array on single X-chromosome fibers and to compare the results with values obtained by other molecular techniques. METHODS The size of the opsin gene array on the X-chromosome in eight male subjects was investigated by (i) direct visual in situ(More)
The time course and extent of brightness fading in a Ganzfeld were determined for adapting luminances ranging from 0.01 to 100 cd/m2. Magnitude estimation and interocular brightness matching were used. During Ganzfeld adaptation, perceived brightness decreased slowly and leveled off, on average, after 5-7 min (adapting time increasing with luminance). On(More)
Molecular genetic studies demonstrate that the human cone opsin gene array on the q-arm of the X-chromosome typically consists of one long-wave-sensitive (L) cone opsin gene and from one to several middle-wave-sensitive (M) cone opsin genes. Although the presence of the single L-cone opsin gene and at least one M-cone opsin gene is essential for normal(More)