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It is well known that rivers connect upstream and downstream ecosystems within watersheds. Here we describe the concept of precipitationsheds to show how upwind terrestrial evaporation source areas contribute moisture for precipitation to downwind sink regions. We illustrate the importance of upwind land cover in precipitationsheds to sustain precipitation(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is often characterized by several relapses and remissions during long-term disease, but neither the responsible cells nor the mechanisms are known to date. Using an animal model of multiple sclerosis, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) CD4+CD25+ Treg cells expressing Foxp3 and CTLA-4 intracellularly and T(More)
14 and Daniel Tsegai 15 Human water security is often achieved with little consideration of environmental consequences and, even when these are acknowledged, the trade-offs between human and environmental water needs are increasing in frequency and amplitude on the increase. The environmental flows concept has continued to evolve in response to these(More)
BACKGROUND Migration of antigen-experienced T cells to secondary lymphoid organs and the site of antigenic-challenge is a mandatory prerequisite for the precise functioning of adaptive immune responses. The surface molecule CD152 (CTLA-4) is mostly considered as a negative regulator of T cell activation during immune responses. It is currently unknown(More)
The expression of CTLA-4 (CD152) on the cell surface of B cells and its consequences for the humoral immune response in vivo are unknown. We investigated the expression of CTLA-4 mRNA and protein in B cells in T cell-independent or -dependent ways. B cells in the presence of Ag-stimulated Th2 cells expressed mRNA of CTLA-4 and up-regulated intracellular(More)
Chronic T cell responses, as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis, are complex and are likely to involve many mechanisms. There is a growing body of evidence that, in concert with the T cell antigen receptor signal, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152) are the primary regulators of T cell responses. Whereas CD28 primarily activates T cell(More)
The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model(More)
Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and(More)
The article analyses the resource nexus, i.e. interlinkages among the resources energy, water, food, land, and minerals as a challenge for foreign policy. Reviewing recent debates it underlines both potential conflicts and opportunities. The debate is gaining ground as many actors from a variety of policy areas express 10 R. Bleischwitz 1 3 stakes in it.(More)