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The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upon the cellular content of mRNA for several enzymes associated with the arachidonic acid cascade was determined in human microvessel-derived endothelial cells. Cells were treated with either vehicle or 10 ng/mL LPS for up to 24 h. Reverse transcription followed by DNA amplification and Southern blotting were used to(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is often characterized by several relapses and remissions during long-term disease, but neither the responsible cells nor the mechanisms are known to date. Using an animal model of multiple sclerosis, relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) CD4+CD25+ Treg cells expressing Foxp3 and CTLA-4 intracellularly and T(More)
Inhibitory effects of CD152 (CTLA-4) engagement during T cell activation have been described. To date, such effects could only be correlated to CD152 expression at the population level because expression of CD152 on the cell surface is too low to be assessed by conventional immunofluorescence on the single cell level. In this study, we use(More)
Chronic T cell responses, as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis, are complex and are likely to involve many mechanisms. There is a growing body of evidence that, in concert with the T cell antigen receptor signal, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152) are the primary regulators of T cell responses. Whereas CD28 primarily activates T cell(More)
OBJECTIVE The importance of the costimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA-4 in the pathologic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been demonstrated by genetic associations and the successful clinical application of CTLA-4Ig for the treatment of RA. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of the CTLA-4/CD28 axis in the local application of(More)
OBJECTIVE CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (known as Treg cells) suppress unwanted and autoreactive T cell responses. Treg cells express the costimulatory molecule CTLA-4 intracellularly, but the mechanisms by which Treg cells exploit CTLA-4 signaling remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of CTLA-4 in controlling the(More)
Although phosphatases are key players of intracellular processes, not much is known about the phosphatase SHP-2 during T cell differentiation. Here we show that ectopic over-expression of SHP-2 in primary T helper cells directly reduced the frequency of individual lymphocytes expressing pro-inflammatory cytokines after antigen-specific stimulation by a(More)
BACKGROUND Migration of antigen-experienced T cells to secondary lymphoid organs and the site of antigenic-challenge is a mandatory prerequisite for the precise functioning of adaptive immune responses. The surface molecule CD152 (CTLA-4) is mostly considered as a negative regulator of T cell activation during immune responses. It is currently unknown(More)
CD28(null) T cells are a highly enriched subset of proinflammatory T cells in patients with autoimmune diseases that are oligoclonal and autoreactive. In this study, we analyzed the role of CD152 signaling on the longevity of human CD28(null) T cells. Using a sensitive staining method for CD152, we show that human CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T(More)
The expression of CTLA-4 (CD152) on the cell surface of B cells and its consequences for the humoral immune response in vivo are unknown. We investigated the expression of CTLA-4 mRNA and protein in B cells in T cell-independent or -dependent ways. B cells in the presence of Ag-stimulated Th2 cells expressed mRNA of CTLA-4 and up-regulated intracellular(More)