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Microglial activation is a key feature in Alzheimer's disease and is considered to contribute to progressive neuronal injury by release of neurotoxic products. The innate immune receptor Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), localized on the surface of microglia, is a first-line host defense receptor against invading microorganisms. Here, we show that a spontaneous(More)
The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes intestinal inflammation characterized by edema, neutrophil influx and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. A major bacterial factor inducing pro-inflammatory host responses is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). S. Typhimurium ΔmsbB possesses a modified lipid A, has reduced virulence(More)
The amyloid beta peptide 42 (Abeta(42)) plays a key role in neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Mononuclear phagocytes, i.e. microglia, have the potential to clear Abeta by phagocytosis. Recently, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor CD14 was shown to mediate phagocytosis of bacterial components and furthermore to contribute to neuroinflammation in(More)
Somatic cell mutagenesis is a powerful tool for characterizing receptor systems. We reported previously two complementation groups of mutant cell lines derived from CD14-transfected Chinese hamster ovary--K1 fibroblasts defective in responses to bacterial endotoxin. Both classes of mutants expressed a normal gene product for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and(More)
Microarray--assisted gene--expression screens of human macrophages revealed WNT5A, a homolog of Wingless, a key regulator of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic segmentation and patterning, to be consistently up-regulated following stimulation with different mycobacterial species and conserved bacterial structures. The expression of WNT5A required Toll-like(More)
The collectin surfactant protein (SP)-A has been implicated in multiple immunoregulatory functions of innate pulmonary host defense via modulating immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of human (hu) SPA on the inhibitory Pulmonary surfactant(More)
On-going airway inflammation is characteristic for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the key factors determining the decrease in lung function, an important clinical parameter of COPD, are not clear. Genome-wide linkage analyses provide evidence for significant linkage to airway obstruction susceptibility loci on(More)
Protein-carbohydrate interactions are important for glycoprotein structure and function. Antibodies of the IgG class, with increasing significance as therapeutics, are glycosylated at a conserved site in the constant Fc region. We hypothesized that disruption of protein-carbohydrate interactions in the glycosylated domain of antibodies leads to the exposure(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to induce proliferation of human T-lymphocytes only in the presence of monocytes and CD34(+) hematopoietic cells (HCs) from peripheral blood. This finding provided evidence of an active role of CD34(+) HCs during inflammation and immunological events. To investigate mechanisms by which CD34(+) HCs become activated and(More)