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Bacterial cell walls contain lipoproteins/peptides, which are strong modulators of the innate immune system. Triacylated lipopeptides are assumed to be recognized by TLR2/TLR1-, whereas diacylated lipopeptides use TLR2/TLR6 heteromers for signaling. Following our initial discovery of TLR6-independent diacylated lipopeptides, we could now characterize di-(More)
Of all pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in innate immunity, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes the structurally broadest range of different bacterial compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2 agonists identified so far are lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from different bacterial strains, lipoproteins, (synthetic)(More)
LPS binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein synthesized predominantly in the liver of the mammalian host. It was first described to bind LPS of Gram-negative bacteria and transfer it via a CD14-enhanced mechanism to a receptor complex including TLR-4 and MD-2, initiating a signal transduction cascade leading to the release of proinflammatory(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both(More)
Microglial activation is a key feature in Alzheimer's disease and is considered to contribute to progressive neuronal injury by release of neurotoxic products. The innate immune receptor Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), localized on the surface of microglia, is a first-line host defense receptor against invading microorganisms. Here, we show that a spontaneous(More)
The amyloid beta peptide 42 (Abeta(42)) plays a key role in neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Mononuclear phagocytes, i.e. microglia, have the potential to clear Abeta by phagocytosis. Recently, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor CD14 was shown to mediate phagocytosis of bacterial components and furthermore to contribute to neuroinflammation in(More)
Bacterial lipoproteins/peptides are composed of di-O-acylated-S-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-cysteinyl residues N-terminally coupled to distinct polypeptides, which can be N-acylated with a third fatty acid. Using a synthetic lipopeptide library we characterized the contribution of the lipid portion to the TLR2 dependent pattern recognition. We found that the two(More)
The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor CD14 plays a major role in the inflammatory response of monocytes to lipopolysaccharide. Here, we describe that ceramide, a constituent of atherogenic lipoproteins, binds to CD14 and induces clustering of CD14 to co-receptors in rafts. In resting cells, CD14 was associated with CD55, the Fcgamma-receptors(More)
Somatic cell mutagenesis is a powerful tool for characterizing receptor systems. We reported previously two complementation groups of mutant cell lines derived from CD14-transfected Chinese hamster ovary--K1 fibroblasts defective in responses to bacterial endotoxin. Both classes of mutants expressed a normal gene product for Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and(More)