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Previous studies have identified a negative potential in the event-related potential (ERP), the error-related negativity (ERN), which is claimed to be triggered by a deviation from a reward expectation. Furthermore, this negativity is related to shifts in risk taking, strategic behavioral adjustments, and inhibition. We used a computer Blackjack gambling(More)
We evaluated the relationship between conscious awareness and the ERN/Ne and Pe in a digit entering task. On each trial, participants rated the accuracy of their responses on a three-point scale (incorrect, unsure, correct). The ERN/Ne was present on incorrect trials judged as incorrect. The Pe was evident on the same trials but also on correct and(More)
Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback(More)
Thermal and nociceptive cutaneous stimuli activate the brain via two types of nerve fibers, slightly myelinated Adelta-fibers with moderate conduction velocity and unmyelinated C-fibers with slow conduction velocity. Differences in central processing upon selective stimulation of these two fiber types in healthy human subjects still remain poorly(More)
We investigated cortical responses and valence/arousal ratings of spider phobic, snake phobic, and healthy subjects while they were processing feared, fear-relevant, emotional neutral, and pleasant stimuli. Results revealed significantly larger amplitudes of late ERP components (P3 and late positive complex, LPC) but not of early components (N1, P2, N2) in(More)
Recent research has focused on decision-making under risk and its neural bases. Two kinds of bad decisions under risk may be defined: too risky decisions and too cautious decisions. Here we show that suboptimal decisions of both kinds lead to increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex in a Blackjack gambling task. Moreover, this increased activity(More)
Spider-phobic and nonphobic subjects searched for a feared/fear-relevant (spider) or neutral target (mushroom) presented in visual matrices of neutral objects (flowers). In half of the displays, the mushroom target was paired with a spider distractor, or a spider target was paired with a mushroom distractor. Although all subjects responded faster to the(More)
We assessed the influence of the variables outcome potential, feedback valence, magnitude, and probability on the amplitude of the feedback negativity (FN). Outcome potential was defined as the a priori valence of an upcoming feedback, that is, is there a potential win or potential loss? All these variables have been studied previously, although never(More)
Several imaging techniques have identified different brain areas involved in the processing of noxious stimulation and thus in the constitution of pain. However, only little is known how these brain areas communicate with one another after activation by stimulus processing and which areas directionally affect or modulate the activity of succeeding areas.(More)
Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated blood oxygen level dependent brain activation in spider phobic and non-phobic subjects while exposed to phobia-related pictures (spiders) and non-phobia-related pictures (snakes and mushrooms). In contrast to previous studies, we show significantly increased amygdala activation in(More)