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BACKGROUND While most patients with depression respond to combinations of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), there are patients requiring other treatments. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) allows modulation of brain regions that are dysfunctional in depression. Since anhedonia is a feature of depression and there is evidence of(More)
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in depressed patients. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed by [(99m)Tc]-HMPAO-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after 10weeks of VNS in patients participating in an open,(More)
Neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) have indicated dysregulation in a network involving prefrontal cortex, subgenual cingulate and the amygdalae, which is known to be modulated by serotonin. The serotonergic system is the principal target for pharmacological treatment in MDD and the functional variable serotonin promoter polymorphism(More)
Alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex are conspicuous imaging findings in patients with major depression (MD). While these rCBF changes have been suggested as functional disease markers, data in large patient samples examining treatment response prediction to antidepressant therapy are(More)
Proteinase-3 (PR-3) is a neutral serine proteinase present in azurophil granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and serves as the major target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with a cytoplasmic staining pattern (c-ANCA) in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). The WG disease appears as severe vasculitis in different organs (e.g. kidney,(More)
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