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A legacy of molecular evolution is the formation of gene families encoding proteins that often serve related functions. One such family gaining recent attention is the tetraspanin superfamily, whose membership has grown to nearly 20 known genes since its discovery in 1990. All encode cell-surface proteins that span the membrane four times, forming two(More)
One of the earliest events in programmed cell death is the externalization of phosphatidylserine, a membrane phospholipid normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Annexin V, an endogenous human protein with a high affinity for membrane bound phosphatidylserine, can be used in vitro to detect apoptosis before other well described(More)
The heterogeneity in the healthy human immune system, and the immunological changes that portend various diseases, have been only partially described. Their comprehensive elucidation has been termed the 'Human Immunology Project'. The accurate measurement of variations in the human immune system requires precise and standardized assays to distinguish true(More)
CD81 is a cell surface molecule expressed on many cell types and associated with the CD19/CD21/Leu13 signal-transducing complex on B cells. A recent report implies that CD81 expression on thymic stromal cells is important in the maturation of thymocytes from CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+. However, we have produced CD81-null mice by gene targeting, and find that they(More)
The Cancer Vaccine Consortium of the Sabin Vaccine Institute (CVC/SVI) is conducting an ongoing large-scale immune monitoring harmonization program through its members and affiliated associations. This effort was brought to life as an external validation program by conducting an international Elispot proficiency panel with 36 laboratories in 2005, and was(More)
Our ability to analyze T-cell function in vitro has progressed in recent years to include analysis of early signaling events, such as specific protein phosphorylation, intermediate functions, such as degranulation and cytokine production, and later functions, such as proliferation. Many assays are now available to monitor these events, and comparative(More)
CD81 (TAPA-1) is a widely expressed cell-surface protein involved in an astonishing variety of biologic responses. It has been cloned independently several times for different functional effects and is reported to influence adhesion, morphology, activation, proliferation, and differentiation of B, T, and other cells. On B cells CD81 is part of a complex(More)
Memory T cells specific for varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were compared in immune adults by intracellular cytokine (ICC) detection. The mean percentages of CD4+ T cells were 0.11% for VZV and 0.22% for HSV by interferon (IFN)-gamma production; the frequency for HCMV was significantly higher at(More)
Intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry can be used to measure T-cell responses to defined antigens. Although CD8+ T-cell responses to soluble proteins are inefficiently detected by this approach, peptides can be used as antigens. Using overlapping peptides spanning an entire protein sequence, CD8+ T-cell responses can be detected to multiple(More)
Optimal treatment of allergic diseases requires that the cytokine profile of allergen-specific T cells be redirected, with the conversion of Th2 profiles into Th1 cytokine profiles. This conversion, however, is difficult, since Th2 effector cells have relatively fixed cytokine profiles. To more effectively redirect the cytokine profiles of T cells, we(More)