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Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells comprise the major subset of peripheral blood gammadelta T cells in humans and expand during infections by recognizing small nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphates. These molecules include (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a microbial isoprenoid intermediate, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate, an endogenous isoprenoid(More)
The specificity of immunoglobulins and alpha/beta T cell receptors (TCRs) provides a framework for the molecular basis of antigen recognition. Yet, evolution has preserved a separate lineage of gamma/delta antigen receptors that share characteristics of both immunoglobulins and alpha/beta TCRs but whose antigens remain poorly understood. We now show that T(More)
We have previously found that monkey Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells mount adaptive immune responses in response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infections. We have now analyzed rhesus monkey gammadelta T cell responses to nonpeptide Ags and superantigens. Like human Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells, rhesus monkey gammadelta T cells are stimulated when(More)
The specificity of immunoglobulins and ␣ / ␤ T cell receptors (TCRs) provides a framework for the molecular basis of antigen recognition. Yet, evolution has preserved a separate lineage of ␥ / ␦ antigen receptors that share characteristics of both immunoglobulins and ␣ / ␤ TCRs but whose antigens remain poorly understood. We now show that T cells of the(More)
Human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells are stimulated by prenyl pyrophosphates, such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), and play important roles in mediating immunity against microbial pathogens and have potent anti-tumor activity. (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) has been identified as a metabolite in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4 phosphate(More)
Intraperitoneal (IP) urokinase is a fibrinolytic agent that has been used in the adjunctive treatment of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and resistant and relapsing peritonitis. However, its efficacy and role in treating resistant CAPD bacterial peritonitis remain unclear and results from previous prospective studies have been conflicting.(More)
The specificity of immunoglobulins and ␣ / ␤ T cell receptors (TCRs) provides a framework for the molecular basis of antigen recognition. Yet, evolution has preserved a separate lineage of ␥ / ␦ antigen receptors that share characteristics of both immunoglobulins and ␣ / ␤ TCRs but whose antigens remain poorly understood. We now show that T cells of the(More)
Human Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells proliferate in vivo during many microbial infections. We have found that Vgamma2Vdelta2(+) T cells recognize nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphates and alkylamines. We now have defined structural features that determine the antigenicity of prenyl pyrophosphates by testing synthetic analogs for bioactivity. We find that the carbon(More)
Human gammadelta T cells expressing the Vgamma2Vdelta2 antigen receptors recognize nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphate and alkylamine antigens. We find that they also recognize staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigens in a manner distinct from the recognition of nonpeptide antigens. Using chimeric and mutant toxins, SEA amino acid residues 20-27 were shown to(More)