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Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) offers an alternative approach to conventional genetic engineering and an opportunity to extend the benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture. Currently available SSN platforms, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas(More)
The liver stages of malaria are clinically silent but have a central role in the Plasmodium life cycle. Liver stages of the parasite containing thousands of merozoites grow inside hepatocytes for several days without triggering an inflammatory response. We show here that Plasmodium uses a PEXEL/VTS motif to introduce the circumsporozoite (CS) protein into(More)
The molecules that define human regulatory T cells (Tregs) phenotypically and functionally remain to be fully characterized. We recently showed that activated human Tregs express mRNA for a transmembrane protein called glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32). Here, using a GARP-specific mAb, we demonstrate that expression of GARP on(More)
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided nuclease that has been widely adapted for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. However, the in vivo target specificity of Cas9 is poorly understood and most studies rely on in silico predictions to define the potential off-target editing spectrum.(More)
The genomes of more than 50 organisms have now been manipulated due to rapid advancement of gene editing technology. One way to perform gene editing in the mouse using the CRISPR/CAS system, guide RNA (gRNA) and CAS9 mRNA transcribed in vitro are microinjected into fertilized eggs that are then allowed to develop to term. As a rule, gRNAs are tested first(More)
Isolation of specific genomic regions retaining molecular interactions is necessary for their biochemical analysis. Here, we established a novel method, engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP), for purification of specific genomic regions retaining molecular interactions. We showed that enChIP using the CRISPR system(More)
Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs) mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32), which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs) activated through the T cell receptor (TCR). Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T(More)
Genome editing technologies, especially the Cas9/CRISPR system, have revolutionized biomedical research over the past several years. Generation of novel alleles has been simplified to unprecedented levels, allowing for rapid expansion of available genetic tool kits for researchers. However, the issue of genotypic mosaicism has become evident, making(More)
Master differentiation transcription factors (MDFs) play decisive roles in cell lineage commitment. Paired box 5 (Pax5) is one of MDFs essential for differentiation of pre-B cells into mature B cells. Here, we analyzed the 5'-genomic structure and transcription of the chicken Pax5 (cPax5) gene in the chicken mature B cell line, DT40. We showed that the(More)
GARP/LRRC32 was defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation; however, in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP(More)